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The exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury from smoking and its impact on renal integrity.
Med Sci Monit. 2004 Mar; 10(3):CR112-6.MS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Human beings are exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) from cigarette smoking. Whether this exposure is associated with nephrotoxicity is unknown.

MATERIAL/METHODS

A total of 68 adult males were included in this study. The studied population was grouped into those who are smokers (n=35) and those who had never smoked (n=33). Cd, Pb and Hg were determined in the blood, urine, hair and nails to assess the extent of exposure to these metals. Urinary excretion of b2-microglobulin (b2M), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), g-glutamyltransferase (g-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined as markers of tubular damage. Albuminuria was determined as a marker of glomerular damage. Serum levels of creatinine, b2M, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined to assess glomerular filtration.

RESULTS

The Cd level in blood and Pb levels in blood and hair were significantly higher in the smokers than non-smokers. Blood levels of Cd and Pb correlated significantly with the smoking index (an indicator for the degree of smoking) in the smokers group. The studied markers of kidney damage neither elevated among the smokers nor correlated with the exposure indices of these metals.

CONCLUSIONS

Smokers are exposed to Cd and Pb. This exposure is not high enough to produce nephrotoxicity. However, it may incite signs of nephrotoxicity in the presence of risk factors for kidney diseases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14976454

Citation

Mortada, Wael I., et al. "The Exposure to Cadmium, Lead and Mercury From Smoking and Its Impact On Renal Integrity." Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, vol. 10, no. 3, 2004, pp. CR112-6.
Mortada WI, Sobh MA, El-Defrawy MM. The exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury from smoking and its impact on renal integrity. Med Sci Monit. 2004;10(3):CR112-6.
Mortada, W. I., Sobh, M. A., & El-Defrawy, M. M. (2004). The exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury from smoking and its impact on renal integrity. Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 10(3), CR112-6.
Mortada WI, Sobh MA, El-Defrawy MM. The Exposure to Cadmium, Lead and Mercury From Smoking and Its Impact On Renal Integrity. Med Sci Monit. 2004;10(3):CR112-6. PubMed PMID: 14976454.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The exposure to cadmium, lead and mercury from smoking and its impact on renal integrity. AU - Mortada,Wael I, AU - Sobh,Mohamed A, AU - El-Defrawy,Mohamed M, Y1 - 2004/03/01/ PY - 2003/01/14/received PY - 2003/09/20/accepted PY - 2004/2/21/pubmed PY - 2004/5/8/medline PY - 2004/2/21/entrez SP - CR112 EP - 6 JF - Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research JO - Med Sci Monit VL - 10 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Human beings are exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) from cigarette smoking. Whether this exposure is associated with nephrotoxicity is unknown. MATERIAL/METHODS: A total of 68 adult males were included in this study. The studied population was grouped into those who are smokers (n=35) and those who had never smoked (n=33). Cd, Pb and Hg were determined in the blood, urine, hair and nails to assess the extent of exposure to these metals. Urinary excretion of b2-microglobulin (b2M), N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), g-glutamyltransferase (g-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined as markers of tubular damage. Albuminuria was determined as a marker of glomerular damage. Serum levels of creatinine, b2M, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined to assess glomerular filtration. RESULTS: The Cd level in blood and Pb levels in blood and hair were significantly higher in the smokers than non-smokers. Blood levels of Cd and Pb correlated significantly with the smoking index (an indicator for the degree of smoking) in the smokers group. The studied markers of kidney damage neither elevated among the smokers nor correlated with the exposure indices of these metals. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers are exposed to Cd and Pb. This exposure is not high enough to produce nephrotoxicity. However, it may incite signs of nephrotoxicity in the presence of risk factors for kidney diseases. SN - 1234-1010 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14976454/The_exposure_to_cadmium_lead_and_mercury_from_smoking_and_its_impact_on_renal_integrity_ L2 - https://www.medscimonit.com/download/index/idArt/11597 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -