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Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal and fetal erythrocyte fatty acid composition.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on maternal erythrocyte fatty acid composition at different stages of pregnancy and in the post-partum period, and on neonatal erythrocyte fatty acid composition.

DESIGN

A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

SETTING

: Subiaco, Western Australia.

SUBJECTS

In all, 98 women booked for delivery at St John of God Hospital, Subiaco, were recruited from private rooms of obstetricians. In total, 83 women and their healthy full-term babies completed the study.

INTERVENTION

Women received either 4 g of fish oil (n=52) (56% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 28% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or placebo (olive oil) (n=46) per day from 20 weeks gestation until delivery.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids were measured in maternal peripheral blood at 20, 30 and 37 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 weeks post partum, and from cord blood collected at birth.

RESULTS

Compared to the control group, maternal EPA and DHA were significantly higher in the fish oil group at 30 and 37 weeks gestation, and remained elevated at 6 weeks post partum (P<0.001). The proportions of n-6 polyunsaturated (arachidonic acid, 22:3n-6 and 22:4n-6) were significantly lower in the fish oil supplemented group at the same time periods (P<0.001). Similarly, the proportions of EPA and DHA were significantly higher (P<0.001), and those of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid, 20:3n-6, 22:3n-6 and 22:4n-6 were significantly lower (P<0.001), in erythrocytes from neonates in the fish oil group, compared to those in the control group.

CONCLUSION

Fish oil supplementation from 20 weeks of pregnancy until birth is an effective means of enhancing n-3 fatty acid status of both mothers and neonates. Furthermore, the changes in maternal erythrocyte fatty acid composition are retained until at least 6 weeks post partum. It is essential to assess the effects of concomitant decreases in arachidonic acid status before any dietary recommendations can be made.

SPONSORSHIP

The study was supported by grants from the NH & MRC and Raine Medical Research Foundation, Australia.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Australia
    Dietary Supplements
    Docosahexaenoic Acids
    Double-Blind Method
    Eicosapentaenoic Acid
    Erythrocytes
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Fetal Blood
    Fish Oils
    Humans
    Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Maternal-Fetal Exchange
    Pregnancy
    Pregnancy Trimester, Second
    Pregnancy Trimester, Third

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    14985680

    Citation

    Dunstan, J A., et al. "Effects of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy On Maternal and Fetal Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, 2004, pp. 429-37.
    Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal and fetal erythrocyte fatty acid composition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(3):429-37.
    Dunstan, J. A., Mori, T. A., Barden, A., Beilin, L. J., Holt, P. G., Calder, P. C., ... Prescott, S. L. (2004). Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal and fetal erythrocyte fatty acid composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(3), pp. 429-37.
    Dunstan JA, et al. Effects of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy On Maternal and Fetal Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Composition. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(3):429-37. PubMed PMID: 14985680.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in pregnancy on maternal and fetal erythrocyte fatty acid composition. AU - Dunstan,J A, AU - Mori,T A, AU - Barden,A, AU - Beilin,L J, AU - Holt,P G, AU - Calder,P C, AU - Taylor,A L, AU - Prescott,S L, PY - 2004/2/27/pubmed PY - 2004/6/30/medline PY - 2004/2/27/entrez SP - 429 EP - 37 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 58 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on maternal erythrocyte fatty acid composition at different stages of pregnancy and in the post-partum period, and on neonatal erythrocyte fatty acid composition. DESIGN: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: : Subiaco, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: In all, 98 women booked for delivery at St John of God Hospital, Subiaco, were recruited from private rooms of obstetricians. In total, 83 women and their healthy full-term babies completed the study. INTERVENTION: Women received either 4 g of fish oil (n=52) (56% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 28% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or placebo (olive oil) (n=46) per day from 20 weeks gestation until delivery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acids were measured in maternal peripheral blood at 20, 30 and 37 weeks of pregnancy and at 6 weeks post partum, and from cord blood collected at birth. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, maternal EPA and DHA were significantly higher in the fish oil group at 30 and 37 weeks gestation, and remained elevated at 6 weeks post partum (P<0.001). The proportions of n-6 polyunsaturated (arachidonic acid, 22:3n-6 and 22:4n-6) were significantly lower in the fish oil supplemented group at the same time periods (P<0.001). Similarly, the proportions of EPA and DHA were significantly higher (P<0.001), and those of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid, 20:3n-6, 22:3n-6 and 22:4n-6 were significantly lower (P<0.001), in erythrocytes from neonates in the fish oil group, compared to those in the control group. CONCLUSION: Fish oil supplementation from 20 weeks of pregnancy until birth is an effective means of enhancing n-3 fatty acid status of both mothers and neonates. Furthermore, the changes in maternal erythrocyte fatty acid composition are retained until at least 6 weeks post partum. It is essential to assess the effects of concomitant decreases in arachidonic acid status before any dietary recommendations can be made. SPONSORSHIP: The study was supported by grants from the NH & MRC and Raine Medical Research Foundation, Australia. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14985680/Effects_of_n_3_polyunsaturated_fatty_acid_supplementation_in_pregnancy_on_maternal_and_fetal_erythrocyte_fatty_acid_composition_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601825 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -