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Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar; 58(3):503-9.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure the relative effects of each of four phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat foods (bread, breakfast cereal, milk and yoghurt) on serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids.

DESIGN

: Three research centres undertook a randomised, incomplete crossover, single-blind study consisting of four treatment periods of 3 weeks each, one of which was a control period. Each sterol-enriched test food provided 1.6 g/day of phytosterols as sterol esters.

SETTING

General Community.

SUBJECTS

In all 58, free-living men and women with mean age (s.d.) 54 (8) y, moderately elevated plasma total cholesterol 6.2 (0.7) mmol/l and body mass index 26.2 (3.0) kg/m(2).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids.

RESULTS

Serum total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly lowered by consumption of phytosterol-enriched foods: milk (8.7 and 15.9%) and yoghurt (5.6 and 8.6%). Serum LDL cholesterol levels fell significantly by 6.5% with bread and 5.4% with cereal. They were both significantly less efficacious than sterol-enriched milk (P<0.001). Plasma sitosterol increased by 17-23% and campesterol by 48-52% with phytosterol-enriched milk and bread. Lipid-adjusted beta-carotene was lowered by 5-10% by sterols in bread and milk, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to demonstrate that cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters may differ according to the food matrix. Plant sterols in low-fat milk was almost three times more effective than in bread and cereal. Despite phytosterol-enriched cereal products resulting in lower serum cholesterol reductions compared to sterol-enriched milk, the detection of similar changes in plasma phytosterols demonstrated that such products still delivered and released phytosterols to the gut.

Authors+Show Affiliations

CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. peter.clifton@hsn.csiro.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

14985690

Citation

Clifton, P M., et al. "Cholesterol-lowering Effects of Plant Sterol Esters Differ in Milk, Yoghurt, Bread and Cereal." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 3, 2004, pp. 503-9.
Clifton PM, Noakes M, Sullivan D, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(3):503-9.
Clifton, P. M., Noakes, M., Sullivan, D., Erichsen, N., Ross, D., Annison, G., Fassoulakis, A., Cehun, M., & Nestel, P. (2004). Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(3), 503-9.
Clifton PM, et al. Cholesterol-lowering Effects of Plant Sterol Esters Differ in Milk, Yoghurt, Bread and Cereal. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(3):503-9. PubMed PMID: 14985690.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters differ in milk, yoghurt, bread and cereal. AU - Clifton,P M, AU - Noakes,M, AU - Sullivan,D, AU - Erichsen,N, AU - Ross,D, AU - Annison,G, AU - Fassoulakis,A, AU - Cehun,M, AU - Nestel,P, PY - 2004/2/27/pubmed PY - 2004/6/30/medline PY - 2004/2/27/entrez SP - 503 EP - 9 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 58 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To measure the relative effects of each of four phytosterol ester-enriched low-fat foods (bread, breakfast cereal, milk and yoghurt) on serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids. DESIGN: : Three research centres undertook a randomised, incomplete crossover, single-blind study consisting of four treatment periods of 3 weeks each, one of which was a control period. Each sterol-enriched test food provided 1.6 g/day of phytosterols as sterol esters. SETTING: General Community. SUBJECTS: In all 58, free-living men and women with mean age (s.d.) 54 (8) y, moderately elevated plasma total cholesterol 6.2 (0.7) mmol/l and body mass index 26.2 (3.0) kg/m(2). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum lipids, plasma phytosterols and carotenoids. RESULTS: Serum total and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly lowered by consumption of phytosterol-enriched foods: milk (8.7 and 15.9%) and yoghurt (5.6 and 8.6%). Serum LDL cholesterol levels fell significantly by 6.5% with bread and 5.4% with cereal. They were both significantly less efficacious than sterol-enriched milk (P<0.001). Plasma sitosterol increased by 17-23% and campesterol by 48-52% with phytosterol-enriched milk and bread. Lipid-adjusted beta-carotene was lowered by 5-10% by sterols in bread and milk, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters may differ according to the food matrix. Plant sterols in low-fat milk was almost three times more effective than in bread and cereal. Despite phytosterol-enriched cereal products resulting in lower serum cholesterol reductions compared to sterol-enriched milk, the detection of similar changes in plasma phytosterols demonstrated that such products still delivered and released phytosterols to the gut. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14985690/Cholesterol_lowering_effects_of_plant_sterol_esters_differ_in_milk_yoghurt_bread_and_cereal_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601837 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -