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Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health.

Abstract

Glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and GSH/glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells. The synthesis of GSH from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine is catalyzed sequentially by two cytosolic enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. Compelling evidence shows that GSH synthesis is regulated primarily by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity, cysteine availability, and GSH feedback inhibition. Animal and human studies demonstrate that adequate protein nutrition is crucial for the maintenance of GSH homeostasis. In addition, enteral or parenteral cystine, methionine, N-acetyl-cysteine, and L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate are effective precursors of cysteine for tissue GSH synthesis. Glutathione plays important roles in antioxidant defense, nutrient metabolism, and regulation of cellular events (including gene expression, DNA and protein synthesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, signal transduction, cytokine production and immune response, and protein glutathionylation). Glutathione deficiency contributes to oxidative stress, which plays a key role in aging and the pathogenesis of many diseases (including kwashiorkor, seizure, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, liver disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, HIV, AIDS, cancer, heart attack, stroke, and diabetes). New knowledge of the nutritional regulation of GSH metabolism is critical for the development of effective strategies to improve health and to treat these diseases.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. g-wu@tamu.edu

    , , ,

    Source

    The Journal of nutrition 134:3 2004 Mar pg 489-92

    MeSH

    Cysteine
    Glutamic Acid
    Glutathione
    Glycine
    Health
    Humans

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    14988435

    Citation

    Wu, Guoyao, et al. "Glutathione Metabolism and Its Implications for Health." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 134, no. 3, 2004, pp. 489-92.
    Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, et al. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004;134(3):489-92.
    Wu, G., Fang, Y. Z., Yang, S., Lupton, J. R., & Turner, N. D. (2004). Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(3), pp. 489-92.
    Wu G, et al. Glutathione Metabolism and Its Implications for Health. J Nutr. 2004;134(3):489-92. PubMed PMID: 14988435.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. AU - Wu,Guoyao, AU - Fang,Yun-Zhong, AU - Yang,Sheng, AU - Lupton,Joanne R, AU - Turner,Nancy D, PY - 2004/2/28/pubmed PY - 2004/4/20/medline PY - 2004/2/28/entrez KW - NASA Discipline Radiation Health KW - Non-NASA Center SP - 489 EP - 92 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 134 IS - 3 N2 - Glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) is the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol, and GSH/glutathione disulfide is the major redox couple in animal cells. The synthesis of GSH from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine is catalyzed sequentially by two cytosolic enzymes, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. Compelling evidence shows that GSH synthesis is regulated primarily by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity, cysteine availability, and GSH feedback inhibition. Animal and human studies demonstrate that adequate protein nutrition is crucial for the maintenance of GSH homeostasis. In addition, enteral or parenteral cystine, methionine, N-acetyl-cysteine, and L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate are effective precursors of cysteine for tissue GSH synthesis. Glutathione plays important roles in antioxidant defense, nutrient metabolism, and regulation of cellular events (including gene expression, DNA and protein synthesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, signal transduction, cytokine production and immune response, and protein glutathionylation). Glutathione deficiency contributes to oxidative stress, which plays a key role in aging and the pathogenesis of many diseases (including kwashiorkor, seizure, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, liver disease, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, HIV, AIDS, cancer, heart attack, stroke, and diabetes). New knowledge of the nutritional regulation of GSH metabolism is critical for the development of effective strategies to improve health and to treat these diseases. SN - 0022-3166 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14988435/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/134.3.489 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -