Comparison of Swiss red wheat grain and fractions for their antioxidant properties.J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Mar 10; 52(5):1118-23.JA
Swiss red wheat grain, bran, aleurone, and micronized aleurone were examined and compared for their free radical scavenging properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*), radical cation ABTS*+ and peroxide radical anion O(2)*-, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), chelating capacity, total phenolic content (TPC), and phenolic acid composition. The results showed that micronized aleurone, aleurone, bran, and grain may significantly differ in their antioxidant properties, TPC, and phenolic acid composition. Micronized aleurone had the greatest antioxidant activities, TPC, and concentrations of all identified phenolic acids, suggesting the potential of postharvesting treatment on antioxidant activities and availability of TPC and phenolic acids. Ferulic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in Swiss red wheat and accounted for approximately 57-77% of total phenolic acids on a weight basis. Ferulic acid concentration was well correlated with scavenging activities against radical cation and superoxide anion, TPC, and other phenolic acid concentrations, suggesting the potential use of ferulic acid as a marker of wheat antioxidants. In addition, 50% acetone and ethanol were compared for their effects on wheat ORAC values. The ORAC value of 50% acetone extracts was 3-20-fold greater than that of the ethanol extracts, indicating that 50% acetone may be a better solvent system for monitoring antioxidant properties of wheat. These data suggest the possibility to improve the antioxidant release from wheat-based food ingredients through postharvesting treatment or processing.