Occurrence of pyranoanthocyanins in sparkling wines manufactured with red grape varieties.J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Mar 10; 52(5):1300-6.JA
The anthocyanin pigments in rosé (Vitis vinifera cv. Garnacha) and blanc de noir (V. vinifera cv. Monastrell) base and sparkling wines were studied by LC-DAD/ESI-MS. Anthocyanins of grape origin and pyranoanthocyanins resulting from C-4/C-5 cycloaddition of the former ones with pyruvic acid, acetaldehyde, 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylcatechol were identified in the different wines. Rosé wines presented a higher total pigment content than blanc de noir wines. Pyranoanthocyanins represented 68.9-76.0% of total pigment content in rosé wines and 49.4-60.7% in blanc de noir wines. Malvidin 3-glucoside-pyruvate was the most abundant pigment in both rosé and blanc de noir base wines. Important qualitative and quantitative changes were observed in terms of the anthocyanin and pyranoanthocyanin pigments after the second (bottle) fermentation and 9 months of aging on yeast lees, but not after a further time (3-9 additional months) of aging on lees. Evaluation of the wine color characteristics was consistent with a greater color stability for the rosé sparkling wines that could be associated with the high content, structural diversity, and spectroscopic features of the pyranoanthocyanins present in these wines.