[Intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma: a rare complication of epidural and subarachnoid anesthesia].Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2004 Jan; 51(1):28-39.RE
Subdural and epidural hematomas complicating central blocks are rare but serious complications that can lead to permanent neurological deficits. This review discusses cranial and spinal subdural hematomas, including the history of this complication in the literature. Theories to explain the mechanisms by which hematomas are formed are presented and risk factors are analyzed. The associations between such hematomas and the design of the various needles used for lumbar puncture are evaluated and the most common cranial and spinal locations are discussed. The anatomy of tissues that envelop and contain chronic subdural hematomas are described and the various neurological alterations that can develop are mentioned. Finally, diagnostic imaging options and corrective surgical techniques are reviewed.