Relation of vegetable, fruit, and meat intake to 7-year blood pressure change in middle-aged men: the Chicago Western Electric Study.Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159(6):572-80AJ
Information is sparse on the role of foods in long-term blood pressure (BP) change. The investigators examined relations of food intake to BP change in a prospective cohort study of 1,710 employed men in Chicago, Illinois, initially aged 41-57 years. In 1958 and 1959, BP was measured and nutrient intake assessed by comprehensive interview. In 1959, intake of 26 specific food groups was also assessed. BP was remeasured annually through 1966. The generalized estimating equation method was used to analyze relations of food group intakes to average annual BP change, adjusting for age, weight at each year, alcohol consumption, calories, and other foods. Average systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP) increase was 1.9/0.3 mmHg per year. The SBP of men who consumed 14-42 cups of vegetables a month (0.5-1.5 cups/day) versus <14 cups a month (<0.5 cups/day) was estimated to rise 2.8 mmHg less in 7 years (p < 0.01). The SBP of men who consumed 14-42 cups of fruit a month versus <14 cups a month was estimated to increase 2.2 mmHg less in 7 years (p < 0.05). Beef-veal-lamb and poultry intakes were related directly to a greater SBP/DBP increase (p < 0.05). These results support the concept that diets higher in fruits and vegetables and lower in meats (except fish) may reduce the risk of developing high BP.