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Cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce vertical HIV transmission from pregnant women who have not received prenatal care.
Med Decis Making. 2004 Jan-Feb; 24(1):30-9.MD

Abstract

To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rapid HIV testing followed by treatment with zidovudine, nevirapine, or combination therapy for women presenting in the United States in active labor without prenatal care, the authors developed a decision analytic model from a societal perspective comparing 2 basic strategies: 1) not testing for HIV and 2) offering rapid HIV testing and treatment to women testing positive. HIV transmission rates, test characteristics, and costs were derived from the literature and local sources. Outcomes included number of infected infants, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness in dollars per quality-adjusted life year saved. The authors found that offering rapid HIV testing and administering zidovudine treatment to women testing positive would prevent 27 cases of HIV each year and save $3,000,000/year compared with no intervention. If more expensive treatments were used (e.g., zidovudine rather than nevirapine, or combination therapy rather than monotherapy), the relative risk reduction in HIV transmission for the more expensive strategies would need to be only slightly better to make the more expensive strategies relatively cost effective in comparison with the less expensive strategies. In an analysis including empiric nevirapine prophylaxis, the authors found that empiric therapy would prevent 32 HIV cases and save $2.1 million per year compared with no intervention. In conclusion, rapid HIV testing and treatment for women presenting in labor without prior prenatal care would prevent HIV infections and save costs. At sites where rapid HIV testing is not possible, empiric treatment would also prevent HIV infection and saves costs and is thus preferred to a strategy of neither testing nor treating. Effectiveness in reducing transmission drives the cost-effectiveness ratio much more so than drug cost and should be the basis on which a particular prophylactic regimen is selected.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 231 Albert Sabin Way, P.O. Box 670535, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0535, USA. joseph.mrus@uc.edu.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15005952

Citation

Mrus, Joseph M., and Joel Tsevat. "Cost-effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Vertical HIV Transmission From Pregnant Women Who Have Not Received Prenatal Care." Medical Decision Making : an International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making, vol. 24, no. 1, 2004, pp. 30-9.
Mrus JM, Tsevat J. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce vertical HIV transmission from pregnant women who have not received prenatal care. Med Decis Making. 2004;24(1):30-9.
Mrus, J. M., & Tsevat, J. (2004). Cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce vertical HIV transmission from pregnant women who have not received prenatal care. Medical Decision Making : an International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making, 24(1), 30-9.
Mrus JM, Tsevat J. Cost-effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Vertical HIV Transmission From Pregnant Women Who Have Not Received Prenatal Care. Med Decis Making. 2004 Jan-Feb;24(1):30-9. PubMed PMID: 15005952.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce vertical HIV transmission from pregnant women who have not received prenatal care. AU - Mrus,Joseph M, AU - Tsevat,Joel, PY - 2004/3/10/pubmed PY - 2004/4/24/medline PY - 2004/3/10/entrez SP - 30 EP - 9 JF - Medical decision making : an international journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making JO - Med Decis Making VL - 24 IS - 1 N2 - To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rapid HIV testing followed by treatment with zidovudine, nevirapine, or combination therapy for women presenting in the United States in active labor without prenatal care, the authors developed a decision analytic model from a societal perspective comparing 2 basic strategies: 1) not testing for HIV and 2) offering rapid HIV testing and treatment to women testing positive. HIV transmission rates, test characteristics, and costs were derived from the literature and local sources. Outcomes included number of infected infants, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness in dollars per quality-adjusted life year saved. The authors found that offering rapid HIV testing and administering zidovudine treatment to women testing positive would prevent 27 cases of HIV each year and save $3,000,000/year compared with no intervention. If more expensive treatments were used (e.g., zidovudine rather than nevirapine, or combination therapy rather than monotherapy), the relative risk reduction in HIV transmission for the more expensive strategies would need to be only slightly better to make the more expensive strategies relatively cost effective in comparison with the less expensive strategies. In an analysis including empiric nevirapine prophylaxis, the authors found that empiric therapy would prevent 32 HIV cases and save $2.1 million per year compared with no intervention. In conclusion, rapid HIV testing and treatment for women presenting in labor without prior prenatal care would prevent HIV infections and save costs. At sites where rapid HIV testing is not possible, empiric treatment would also prevent HIV infection and saves costs and is thus preferred to a strategy of neither testing nor treating. Effectiveness in reducing transmission drives the cost-effectiveness ratio much more so than drug cost and should be the basis on which a particular prophylactic regimen is selected. SN - 0272-989X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15005952/Cost_effectiveness_of_interventions_to_reduce_vertical_HIV_transmission_from_pregnant_women_who_have_not_received_prenatal_care_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -