Calcium-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate receptors mediate development, but not maintenance, of secondary allodynia evoked by first-degree burn in the rat.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Jul; 310(1):223-9.JP
Intrathecal pretreatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists blocks development of spinal sensitization in a number of pain models. In contrast, secondary mechanical allodynia evoked by thermal injury (52.5 degrees C for 45 s) applied to the hind paw of the rat is not blocked by intrathecal pretreatment with NMDA receptor antagonists. It is, however, blocked by antagonists to the non-NMDA, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate (AMPA/KA) and calcium-permeable AMPA/KA receptors. These findings suggest a role for these receptors in the development of spinal sensitization. The present study used the same thermal injury model to assess the effects of the AMPA/KA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and specific calcium-permeable AMPA/KA receptor antagonists philanthotoxin (PHTx) and joro spider toxin (JST) when given as postinjury treatments. Intrathecal saline injection at 5 and 30 min postinjury had no effect on thermal injury-evoked allodynia as measured by calibrated von Frey filaments. In contrast, 36 nmol of CNQX given at either time point reversed allodynia. Intrathecal 13 nmol of PHTx or 9 nmol of JST (higher doses than that required for pretreatment) reversed allodynia at the 5-min time point, but neither drug was antiallodynic at the 30-min time point. Thus, secondary mechanical allodynia in this model is not maintained by calcium-permeable AMPA/KA receptors, but instead requires activation of calcium-impermeable AMPA/KA receptors. This finding supports a role for AMPA/KA receptor function in responses occurring during spinal sensitization.