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Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 May; 28(5):661-70.IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the long-term compliance and effects of two low-fat diets differing in carbohydrate to protein ratio on body composition and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in obese subjects with hyperinsulinemia.

DESIGN

Outpatient, parallel, clinical intervention study of two groups of subjects randomly assigned to either a standard protein (SP; 15% protein, 55% carbohydrate) or high-protein (HP; 30% protein, 40% carbohydrate) diet, during 12 weeks of energy restriction (approximately 6.5 MJ/day) and 4 weeks of energy balance (approximately 8.3 MJ/day). Subsequently, subjects were asked to maintain the same dietary pattern for the succeeding 52 weeks with minimal professional support.

SUBJECTS

A total of 58 obese, nondietetic subjects with hyperinsulinemia (13 males/45 females, mean age 50.2 y, mean body mass index (BMI) 34.0 kg/m2, mean fasting insulin 17.8 mU/l) participated in the study.

MEASUREMENTS

: Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting glucose, insulin, CRP and sICAM-1 were measured at baseline and at weeks 16 and 68. Urinary urea/creatinine ratio was measured at baseline, week 16 and at 3 monthly intervals thereafter.

RESULTS

In total, 43 subjects completed the study with similar dropouts in each group (P=0.76). At week 68, there was net weight loss (SP -2.9+/-3.6%, HP -4.1+/-5.8%; P<0.44) due entirely to fat loss (P<0.001) with no diet effect [corrected]. Both diets significantly increased HDL cholesterol concentrations (P<0.001) and decreased fasting insulin, insulin resistance, sICAM-1 and CRP levels (P<0.05). Protein intake was significantly greater in HP during the initial 16 weeks (P<0.001), but decreased in HP and increased in SP during 52-week follow-up, with no difference between groups at week 68, indicating poor long-term dietary adherence behaviour to both dietary patterns.

CONCLUSION

Without active ongoing dietary advice, adherence to dietary intervention is poor. Nonetheless, both dietary patterns achieved net weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors.

Authors+Show Affiliations

CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15007396

Citation

Brinkworth, G D., et al. "Long-term Effects of a High-protein, Low-carbohydrate Diet On Weight Control and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Obese Hyperinsulinemic Subjects." International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 28, no. 5, 2004, pp. 661-70.
Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Keogh JB, et al. Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(5):661-70.
Brinkworth, G. D., Noakes, M., Keogh, J. B., Luscombe, N. D., Wittert, G. A., & Clifton, P. M. (2004). Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 28(5), 661-70.
Brinkworth GD, et al. Long-term Effects of a High-protein, Low-carbohydrate Diet On Weight Control and Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Obese Hyperinsulinemic Subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(5):661-70. PubMed PMID: 15007396.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Long-term effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on weight control and cardiovascular risk markers in obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. AU - Brinkworth,G D, AU - Noakes,M, AU - Keogh,J B, AU - Luscombe,N D, AU - Wittert,G A, AU - Clifton,P M, PY - 2004/3/10/pubmed PY - 2004/8/21/medline PY - 2004/3/10/entrez SP - 661 EP - 70 JF - International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity JO - Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord VL - 28 IS - 5 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To compare the long-term compliance and effects of two low-fat diets differing in carbohydrate to protein ratio on body composition and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in obese subjects with hyperinsulinemia. DESIGN: Outpatient, parallel, clinical intervention study of two groups of subjects randomly assigned to either a standard protein (SP; 15% protein, 55% carbohydrate) or high-protein (HP; 30% protein, 40% carbohydrate) diet, during 12 weeks of energy restriction (approximately 6.5 MJ/day) and 4 weeks of energy balance (approximately 8.3 MJ/day). Subsequently, subjects were asked to maintain the same dietary pattern for the succeeding 52 weeks with minimal professional support. SUBJECTS: A total of 58 obese, nondietetic subjects with hyperinsulinemia (13 males/45 females, mean age 50.2 y, mean body mass index (BMI) 34.0 kg/m2, mean fasting insulin 17.8 mU/l) participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS: : Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting glucose, insulin, CRP and sICAM-1 were measured at baseline and at weeks 16 and 68. Urinary urea/creatinine ratio was measured at baseline, week 16 and at 3 monthly intervals thereafter. RESULTS: In total, 43 subjects completed the study with similar dropouts in each group (P=0.76). At week 68, there was net weight loss (SP -2.9+/-3.6%, HP -4.1+/-5.8%; P<0.44) due entirely to fat loss (P<0.001) with no diet effect [corrected]. Both diets significantly increased HDL cholesterol concentrations (P<0.001) and decreased fasting insulin, insulin resistance, sICAM-1 and CRP levels (P<0.05). Protein intake was significantly greater in HP during the initial 16 weeks (P<0.001), but decreased in HP and increased in SP during 52-week follow-up, with no difference between groups at week 68, indicating poor long-term dietary adherence behaviour to both dietary patterns. CONCLUSION: Without active ongoing dietary advice, adherence to dietary intervention is poor. Nonetheless, both dietary patterns achieved net weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15007396/Long_term_effects_of_a_high_protein_low_carbohydrate_diet_on_weight_control_and_cardiovascular_risk_markers_in_obese_hyperinsulinemic_subjects_ L2 - http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&amp;PAGE=linkout&amp;SEARCH=15007396.ui DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -