Defining the contribution of the HLA region to cis DQ2-positive coeliac disease patients.Genes Immun. 2004 May; 5(3):215-20.GI
The major genetic susceptibility to coeliac disease is contributed by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. The primary association is with the HLA-DQ2 molecule, encoded by the DQA1*05 and DQB1*02 alleles, which is expressed by over 90% of patients. The aim of our study was to perform an extensive scan of the entire HLA region to determine whether there is evidence for the presence of additional HLA susceptibility genes for coeliac disease in the Dutch population, acting independently of DQ2. In all, 16 microsatellite markers and the DQA1 and DQB1 genes were genotyped in simplex cis DQ2-positive coeliac disease families and cis DQ2-positive control families. Allele frequencies of markers on phase-known DQ2-positive haplotypes transmitted to patients were compared to a combined group of DQ2-positive nontransmitted and control haplotypes, thereby controlling for the DQ2 contribution. No significant differences at any of the marker loci were detected, suggesting that DQ2 is the major HLA risk factor for coeliac disease. Individuals homozygous for DQ2 or heterozygous for DQA1*05-DQB1*02/DQA1*0201-DQB1*02 were found to be at five-fold increased risk for development of coeliac disease (P<10(-8)). This risk seems to be conferred by the presence of a second DQB1*02 allele next to one DQA1*05-DQB1*02 haplotype, independently of the second DQA1 allele.