Clinical practice guidelines for managing dyslipidemias in kidney transplant patients: a report from the Managing Dyslipidemias in Chronic Kidney Disease Work Group of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative.Am J Transplant. 2004; 4 Suppl 7:13-53.AJ
The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is very high in patients with chronic kidney (CKD) disease and in kidney transplant recipients. Indeed, available evidence for these patients suggests that the 10-year cumulative risk of coronary heart disease is at least 20%, or roughly equivalent to the risk seen in patients with previous CVD. Recently, the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) published guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemias in patients with CKD, including transplant patients. It was the conclusion of this Work Group that the National Cholesterol Education Program Guidelines are generally applicable to patients with CKD, but that there are significant differences in the approach and treatment of dyslipidemias in patients with CKD compared with the general population. In the present document we present the guidelines generated by this workgroup as they apply to kidney transplant recipients. Evidence from the general population indicates that treatment of dyslipidemias reduces CVD, and evidence in kidney transplant patients suggests that judicious treatment can be safe and effective in improving dyslipidemias. Dyslipidemias are very common in CKD and in transplant patients. However, until recently there have been no adequately powered, randomized, controlled trials examining the effects of dyslipidemia treatment on CVD in patients with CKD. Since completion of the K/DOQI guidelines on dyslipidemia in CKD, the results of the Assessment of Lescol in Renal Transplantation (ALERT) Study have been presented and published. Based on information from randomized trials conducted in the general population and the single study conducted in kidney transplant patients, these guidelines, which are a modified version of the K/DOQI dyslipidemia guidelines, were developed to aid clinicians in the management of dyslipidemias in kidney transplant patients. These guidelines are divided into four sections. The first section (Introduction) provides the rationale for the guidelines, and describes the target population, scope, intended users, and methods. The second section presents guidelines on the assessment of dyslipidemias (guidelines 1-3), while the third section offers guidelines for the treatment of dyslipidemias (guidelines 4-5). The key guideline statements are supported mainly by data from studies in the general population, but there is an urgent need for additional studies in CKD and in transplant patients. Therefore, the last section outlines recommendations for research.