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Effect of minoxidil on proliferation and apoptosis in dermal papilla cells of human hair follicle.
J Dermatol Sci. 2004 Apr; 34(2):91-8.JD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Minoxidil has been widely used to treat androgenetic alopecia, but little is known about its pharmacological activity or about the identity of its target cells in hair follicles. We hypothesized that minoxidil has direct effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) of human hair follicle.

OBJECTIVE

To elucidate the mechanism of topical minoxidil action in terms of stimulating hair growth.

METHODS

We evaluated cell proliferations in cultured DPCs by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and measured the expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, Bcl-2, and Bax by Western blot. We also measured elongation of hair follicles in organ culture.

RESULTS

Minoxidil significantly increased the proliferation of DPCs. The levels of ERK phosphorylation and of phosphorylated Akt increased significantly 1 h post-treatment; percentage increase of ERK phosphorylation was 287% at 0.1 microM and 351% at 1.0 microM of minoxidil, and that of Akt phosphorylation was 168% at 0.1 microM and 257% at 1.0 microM of minoxidil. 1.0 microM of minoxidil increased Bcl-2 expression over 150%, while 1.0 microM of minoxidil decreased Bax expression by more than 50%. Moreover, a significant elongation of individual hair follicles in organ culture was observed after adding minoxidil.

CONCLUSION

Minoxidil promotes the survival of human DPCs by activating both ERK and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. We suggest that minoxidil stimulates the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Dermatology, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 28 Yongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110-744, South Korea.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15033191

Citation

Han, Ji Hyun, et al. "Effect of Minoxidil On Proliferation and Apoptosis in Dermal Papilla Cells of Human Hair Follicle." Journal of Dermatological Science, vol. 34, no. 2, 2004, pp. 91-8.
Han JH, Kwon OS, Chung JH, et al. Effect of minoxidil on proliferation and apoptosis in dermal papilla cells of human hair follicle. J Dermatol Sci. 2004;34(2):91-8.
Han, J. H., Kwon, O. S., Chung, J. H., Cho, K. H., Eun, H. C., & Kim, K. H. (2004). Effect of minoxidil on proliferation and apoptosis in dermal papilla cells of human hair follicle. Journal of Dermatological Science, 34(2), 91-8.
Han JH, et al. Effect of Minoxidil On Proliferation and Apoptosis in Dermal Papilla Cells of Human Hair Follicle. J Dermatol Sci. 2004;34(2):91-8. PubMed PMID: 15033191.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of minoxidil on proliferation and apoptosis in dermal papilla cells of human hair follicle. AU - Han,Ji Hyun, AU - Kwon,Oh Sang, AU - Chung,Jin Ho, AU - Cho,Kwang Hyun, AU - Eun,Hee Chul, AU - Kim,Kyu Han, PY - 2003/09/22/received PY - 2003/12/25/revised PY - 2004/01/06/accepted PY - 2004/3/23/pubmed PY - 2004/11/17/medline PY - 2004/3/23/entrez SP - 91 EP - 8 JF - Journal of dermatological science JO - J Dermatol Sci VL - 34 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Minoxidil has been widely used to treat androgenetic alopecia, but little is known about its pharmacological activity or about the identity of its target cells in hair follicles. We hypothesized that minoxidil has direct effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of dermal papilla cells (DPCs) of human hair follicle. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanism of topical minoxidil action in terms of stimulating hair growth. METHODS: We evaluated cell proliferations in cultured DPCs by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and measured the expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Akt, Bcl-2, and Bax by Western blot. We also measured elongation of hair follicles in organ culture. RESULTS: Minoxidil significantly increased the proliferation of DPCs. The levels of ERK phosphorylation and of phosphorylated Akt increased significantly 1 h post-treatment; percentage increase of ERK phosphorylation was 287% at 0.1 microM and 351% at 1.0 microM of minoxidil, and that of Akt phosphorylation was 168% at 0.1 microM and 257% at 1.0 microM of minoxidil. 1.0 microM of minoxidil increased Bcl-2 expression over 150%, while 1.0 microM of minoxidil decreased Bax expression by more than 50%. Moreover, a significant elongation of individual hair follicles in organ culture was observed after adding minoxidil. CONCLUSION: Minoxidil promotes the survival of human DPCs by activating both ERK and Akt and by preventing cell death by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. We suggest that minoxidil stimulates the growth of human hairs by prolonging anagen through these proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on DPCs. SN - 0923-1811 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15033191/Effect_of_minoxidil_on_proliferation_and_apoptosis_in_dermal_papilla_cells_of_human_hair_follicle_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0923181104000039 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -