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Phyto-oestrogens, their mechanism of action: current evidence for a role in breast and prostate cancer.
Br J Nutr. 2004 Apr; 91(4):513-31.BJ

Abstract

The incidence of hormone-dependent cancers, such as those of the breast and prostate, is much lower in Eastern countries such as China and Japan in comparison with the Western world. Diet is believed to have a major effect on disease risk and one group of compounds, the phyto-oestrogens, which are consumed in large amounts in Asian populations, have been implicated in cancer protection. This view follows the finding that plasma and urinary levels of phyto-oestrogens are much higher in areas where cancer incidence is low in comparison with areas of high cancer incidence. The phyto-oestrogens are comprised of two main groups; the isoflavones and lignans. Of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein have been the most widely studied. These compounds have been shown to possess anticancer properties; however their precise mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. In comparison, few studies have investigated the effects of lignans in breast and prostate cancer. In vitro studies have shown that genistein exerts biphasic effects on cancer cell growth, stimulating growth at low concentrations (<10 microm) and inhibiting growth at high concentrations (>10 microm), which suggests that low phyto-oestrogen levels may stimulate cancer growth in vivo. Plasma phyto-oestrogen concentrations of >10 microm cannot be achieved by dietary intake and therefore the timing of exposure to phyto-oestrogens may be of the utmost importance in determining their chemopreventive effects. The present paper reviews the effects of phyto-oestrogens on breast and prostate cancer in vivo and in vitro and discusses possible mechanisms of action via which these compounds may exert their effects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK. p.j.magee@ulster.ac.ukNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15035679

Citation

Magee, Pamela J., and Ian R. Rowland. "Phyto-oestrogens, Their Mechanism of Action: Current Evidence for a Role in Breast and Prostate Cancer." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 4, 2004, pp. 513-31.
Magee PJ, Rowland IR. Phyto-oestrogens, their mechanism of action: current evidence for a role in breast and prostate cancer. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(4):513-31.
Magee, P. J., & Rowland, I. R. (2004). Phyto-oestrogens, their mechanism of action: current evidence for a role in breast and prostate cancer. The British Journal of Nutrition, 91(4), 513-31.
Magee PJ, Rowland IR. Phyto-oestrogens, Their Mechanism of Action: Current Evidence for a Role in Breast and Prostate Cancer. Br J Nutr. 2004;91(4):513-31. PubMed PMID: 15035679.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Phyto-oestrogens, their mechanism of action: current evidence for a role in breast and prostate cancer. AU - Magee,Pamela J, AU - Rowland,Ian R, PY - 2004/3/24/pubmed PY - 2004/5/7/medline PY - 2004/3/24/entrez SP - 513 EP - 31 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 91 IS - 4 N2 - The incidence of hormone-dependent cancers, such as those of the breast and prostate, is much lower in Eastern countries such as China and Japan in comparison with the Western world. Diet is believed to have a major effect on disease risk and one group of compounds, the phyto-oestrogens, which are consumed in large amounts in Asian populations, have been implicated in cancer protection. This view follows the finding that plasma and urinary levels of phyto-oestrogens are much higher in areas where cancer incidence is low in comparison with areas of high cancer incidence. The phyto-oestrogens are comprised of two main groups; the isoflavones and lignans. Of the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein have been the most widely studied. These compounds have been shown to possess anticancer properties; however their precise mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. In comparison, few studies have investigated the effects of lignans in breast and prostate cancer. In vitro studies have shown that genistein exerts biphasic effects on cancer cell growth, stimulating growth at low concentrations (<10 microm) and inhibiting growth at high concentrations (>10 microm), which suggests that low phyto-oestrogen levels may stimulate cancer growth in vivo. Plasma phyto-oestrogen concentrations of >10 microm cannot be achieved by dietary intake and therefore the timing of exposure to phyto-oestrogens may be of the utmost importance in determining their chemopreventive effects. The present paper reviews the effects of phyto-oestrogens on breast and prostate cancer in vivo and in vitro and discusses possible mechanisms of action via which these compounds may exert their effects. SN - 0007-1145 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15035679/Phyto_oestrogens_their_mechanism_of_action:_current_evidence_for_a_role_in_breast_and_prostate_cancer_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114504000674/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -