Estimates of heterocyclic amine intake in the US population.J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Mar 25; 802(1):127-33.JC
HA-specific meat concentration estimates using a method that combines laboratory data to predict HA concentrations from meat type, cooking method and meat doneness were used with national dietary data to estimate daily HA intake for segments of the US population. PhIP was found to comprise approximately 70% of US mean dietary intake of total HAs, with pan-frying and chicken being the single cooking method and meat type contributing the greatest to total estimated HA exposures. This analysis demonstrated significantly higher concentrations in grilled/barbecued meats than in other cooked meats. African-American males were estimated to consume nearly twofold and approximately 35 to 40% more PhIP (and total HAs) than white males at ages <16 and >30 years, respectively.