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Plasma ghrelin levels and hunger scores in humans initiating meals voluntarily without time- and food-related cues.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004; 287(2):E297-304AJ

Abstract

Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that is implicated in meal initiation, in part because circulating levels rise before meals. Because previous human studies have examined subjects fed on known schedules, the observed preprandial ghrelin increases could have been a secondary consequence of meal anticipation. A causal role for ghrelin in meal initiation would be better supported if preprandial increases occurred before spontaneously initiated meals not prompted by external cues. We measured plasma ghrelin levels among human subjects initiating meals voluntarily without cues related to time or food. Samples were drawn every 5 min between a scheduled lunch and a freely requested dinner, and hunger scores were obtained using visual analog scales. Insulin, glucose, fatty acids, leptin, and triglycerides were also measured. Ghrelin levels decreased shortly after the first meal in all subjects. A subsequent preprandial increase occurred over a wide range of intermeal intervals (IMI; 320-425 min) in all but one subject. Hunger scores and ghrelin levels showed similar temporal profiles and similar relative differences in magnitude between lunch and dinner. One subject displayed no preprandial ghrelin increase and was also the only individual whose insulin levels did not return to baseline between meals. This finding, along with a correlation between area-under-the-curve values of ghrelin and insulin, suggests a role for insulin in ghrelin regulation. The preprandial increase of ghrelin levels that we observed among humans initiating meals voluntarily, without time- or food-related cues, and the overlap between these levels and hunger scores are consistent with a role for ghrelin in meal initiation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA. davidec@u.washington.edu

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15039149

Citation

Cummings, D E., et al. "Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Hunger Scores in Humans Initiating Meals Voluntarily Without Time- and Food-related Cues." American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 287, no. 2, 2004, pp. E297-304.
Cummings DE, Frayo RS, Marmonier C, et al. Plasma ghrelin levels and hunger scores in humans initiating meals voluntarily without time- and food-related cues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287(2):E297-304.
Cummings, D. E., Frayo, R. S., Marmonier, C., Aubert, R., & Chapelot, D. (2004). Plasma ghrelin levels and hunger scores in humans initiating meals voluntarily without time- and food-related cues. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 287(2), pp. E297-304.
Cummings DE, et al. Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Hunger Scores in Humans Initiating Meals Voluntarily Without Time- and Food-related Cues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287(2):E297-304. PubMed PMID: 15039149.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Plasma ghrelin levels and hunger scores in humans initiating meals voluntarily without time- and food-related cues. AU - Cummings,D E, AU - Frayo,R Scott, AU - Marmonier,Corinne, AU - Aubert,Roberte, AU - Chapelot,Didier, Y1 - 2004/03/23/ PY - 2004/3/25/pubmed PY - 2004/8/31/medline PY - 2004/3/25/entrez SP - E297 EP - 304 JF - American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism JO - Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. VL - 287 IS - 2 N2 - Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that is implicated in meal initiation, in part because circulating levels rise before meals. Because previous human studies have examined subjects fed on known schedules, the observed preprandial ghrelin increases could have been a secondary consequence of meal anticipation. A causal role for ghrelin in meal initiation would be better supported if preprandial increases occurred before spontaneously initiated meals not prompted by external cues. We measured plasma ghrelin levels among human subjects initiating meals voluntarily without cues related to time or food. Samples were drawn every 5 min between a scheduled lunch and a freely requested dinner, and hunger scores were obtained using visual analog scales. Insulin, glucose, fatty acids, leptin, and triglycerides were also measured. Ghrelin levels decreased shortly after the first meal in all subjects. A subsequent preprandial increase occurred over a wide range of intermeal intervals (IMI; 320-425 min) in all but one subject. Hunger scores and ghrelin levels showed similar temporal profiles and similar relative differences in magnitude between lunch and dinner. One subject displayed no preprandial ghrelin increase and was also the only individual whose insulin levels did not return to baseline between meals. This finding, along with a correlation between area-under-the-curve values of ghrelin and insulin, suggests a role for insulin in ghrelin regulation. The preprandial increase of ghrelin levels that we observed among humans initiating meals voluntarily, without time- or food-related cues, and the overlap between these levels and hunger scores are consistent with a role for ghrelin in meal initiation. SN - 0193-1849 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15039149/Plasma_ghrelin_levels_and_hunger_scores_in_humans_initiating_meals_voluntarily_without_time__and_food_related_cues_ L2 - http://www.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajpendo.00582.2003?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -