Differences in the hepatic P450-dependent metabolism of estrogen and tamoxifen in response to treatment of rats with 3,3'-diindolylmethane and its parent compound indole-3-carbinol.Cancer Detect Prev. 2004; 28(1):72-9.CD
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), present in cruciferous vegetables, and its major in vivo product 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), have been reported to suppress estrogen-responsive cancers. This effect may be mediated through the modification of cytochrome P450 (CYP) complement and activities leading to estrogen detoxification. We examined the effects of a 4-day treatment of female Sprague-Dawley rats with DIM at 8.4 and 42 mg/kg body weight (bwt), on the hepatic CYP protein level, CYP1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2 and 3A1/2 probe activities and CYP-dependent metabolism of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1). At 42 mg/kg bwt, DIM effected a small increase (2.8-fold) in CYP1A1 activity, and at both dose levels it reduced CYP3A1/2 activity by approximately 40%. At the higher dose level, DIM decreased the rates of oxidation of E2 to 4-OH-E2, 4-OH-E1, 6alpha-OH-E2 and 6(alpha+beta)-OH-E1 by 39, 44, 71 and 60%, respectively, and E1 to 6(alpha+beta)-OH-E1 by 39%. These effects were considerably different from those of I3C reported by us previously. We also examined the effects of DIM and I3C on the hepatic microsomal metabolism of tamoxifen (TAM). Whereas metabolism of TAM was unaffected by DIM, formation of N-desmethyl-TAM (and its presumed derivative) was increased approximately 3-fold by I3C at 250 mg/kg bwt. Since N-desmethyl-TAM is transformed to a genotoxic metabolite, dietary exposure to I3C may enhance hepatic carcinogenicity of TAM in the rat. The differences between I3C and DIM in CYP-mediated activities and metabolism indicate that DIM is not a proximate intermediate in the mechanism of action of I3C.