Medical problems in the returning expatriate.Clin Occup Environ Med 2004; 4(1):205-19CO
Expatriates are at risk for a number of infectious diseases for which short-term travelers generally are not at risk. Returning expatriates should undergo a detailed physical examination and a basic set of laboratory tests; these tests should be tailored to their specific history and exposures. Febrile patients with an appropriate exposure history must be evaluated for malaria; other potential diagnoses may be determined by incubation period, geographic exposure, and associated symptoms. When evaluating an ill returned expatriate with fever, it is important to exclude malaria, typhoid, leishmaniasis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, HIV infection, and syphilis. Gastrointestinal irregularities in expatriates may be caused by a number of infectious and noninfectious causes, including intestinal helminthiasis, strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, liver flukes, and amebiasis. Eosinophilia in returned expatriates often is associated with an infectious process and should be evaluated. Many infections associated with long-term overseas deployment may include dermatologic manifestations, including filariasis and leishmaniasis.