Enuresis: prevalence, risk factors and urinary pathology among school children in Istanbul, Turkey.Pediatr Int. 2004 Feb; 46(1):58-63.PI
Enuresis is a common problem among children and adolescents, and can lead to important social and psychological disturbances. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of enuresis among school children and determine the risk factors associated with this disorder.
A cross sectional population-based study was conducted in 1576 children. The pupils enrolled in the study were chosen randomly from 14 primary schools located in seven different regions of Istanbul. Data were collected via a questionnaire completed by parents. Enuretic children were invited to the pediatric nephrology outpatient clinic of Cerrahpasa Medical School, Istanbul, Turkey. A detailed history was taken, physical and ultrasonographic examinations, urinalysis and urine culture were performed. The relationship between the prevalence of enuresis and the patients' age, gender, region, the parental educational level and employment status, number of family members, and the family's monthly income were tested by means of chi(2) and logistic regression analysis. The comparison between the two enuretic groups (monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis group vs diurnal enuresis only and diurnal-nocturnal enuresis group) regarding the sociodemographic factors were tested with the chi(2) test and P < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant.
The study group was composed of 1576 school children aged between 6 and 16 years. The overall prevalence of enuresis was 12.4%. When the chi(2) test was used, a significant relationship was found between the prevalence of enuresis and age, educational level of the father, the family's monthly income, and number of family members. However, when logistic regression analysis was applied, there was a statistically significant relationship only between enuresis, and age and number of family members. In the whole group, monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna was found to be more common in boys. When the two enuretic children groups (monosymptomatic nocturnal, diurnal only and nocturnal-diurnal enuretics) were compared with each other regarding gender, parental educational and employment status, and number of family members, statistically significant differences were found. Both maternal and the paternal low educational status were found to be associated with monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna. Likewise, monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna was found to be more common in the children of the unemployed mothers, while diurnal enuresis was more common in the children of unemployed fathers. Nocturnal enuresis was found to be associated with large families. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the two groups of enuretics regarding age and family income levels. The rate of urinary abnormalities in the whole group was 7.1%.
Enuresis is a common problem among school children and associated urinary abnormalities are not uncommon. Identification of children at risk is an essential first step before choosing the individualized management for each enuretic child.