[Long-term outcomes of individualized biofeedback training based on the underlying dysfunction for patients with imperforate anus].Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2004 Mar 17; 84(6):478-81.ZY
Although better anorectal function was achieved due to the advanced operation procedures, the fecal incontinence and constipation still remain as major postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to design a individualized biofeedback program based on the underlying dysfunctions and to assess the short-term and long-term clinical and quality of life outcomes for patients with imperforate anus.
Thirty-one patients were treated using individualized biofeedback program according to their different dysfunctions after completed assessment of anorectal function. The many of special biofeedback training methods that consisted of the strengthening perianal muscles biofeedback, sensory discrimination biofeedback, synchronizing external sphincter contraction biofeedback and improving defecation dynamic biofeedback were selected to make up the individualized biofeedback training program. The clinical scores and quality of life scores were assessed at short-term and long-term follow-up.
The clinical scores and quality of life scores in patients at before training group, after biofeedback training group, short-term follow-up group and long-term follow-up group were 3.2 +/- 1.1 and 8.7 +/- 1.1, 5.2 +/- 0.6 and 11.0 +/- 0.8, 5.0 +/- 0.6 and 10.8 +/- 0.9, and 4.6 +/- 0.7 and 10.0 +/- 0.7 respectively. After biofeedback training, the first leak volume and all parameters that evaluated the function of the perianal muscles were increased significantly, the abnormal rectal threshold sensations and defecation dynamics were reverted to normal, and 82% patients who have not external anal sphincter reflex acquired the new reflex. The latencies of pudendo-anal reflex have significant difference in patients with poor response compared with those patients with good response before and after the biofeedback training. At short-term follow-up 12 patients (57%) maintained the clinical outcome and only 9 patients (43%) have regressions slightly. At long-term follow-up 7 patients (33%) maintained the clinical outcome very well and 14 patients (67%) have regressions. Although the clinical and quality of life scores have decreased slightly at follow-up, they were still increased significantly compared with before biofeedback training group.
The causes of postoperative fecal dysfunction in patients with imperforate anus are multifactorial, and the individualized biofeedback is more suitable for improvement of the clinical outcome and the quality of life, and it maintain good clinical outcome and quality of life at short-term and long-term follow-up.