Relationship between clinical classification of chronic venous disease and patient-reported quality of life: results from an international cohort study.J Vasc Surg 2004; 39(4):823-8JV
The CEAP (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, pathophysiologic) clinical classification for chronic venous disease (CVD) is based on physician-evaluated clinical signs of CVD. The relationship between CEAP clinical classification and patient-perceived quality of life (QOL) has not been evaluated, but is important for the selection and interpretation of outcomes in clinical studies of patients with CVD. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether CVD, as classified with CEAP, is related to patient-reported QOL, and to identify patient characteristics associated with CEAP class and QOL that need to be considered when interpreting outcomes in CVD.
The Venous Insufficiency Epidemiologic and Economic Study (VEINES) population is an international cohort of 1531 patients with CVD recruited in Belgium, France, Italy, and Canada. At the baseline visit patients were categorized into one of seven CEAP clinical categories on the basis of a clinical examination, and completed standardized generic (Short-Form Health Survey, 36 items [SF-36]) and venous disease-specific (QOL [VEINES-QOL] and symptom severity [VEINES-Sym]) QOL questionnaires. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between CEAP class and QOL.
The proportion of patients in the seven CEAP classes (class 0-6) was 3.8%, 13.3%, 24.1%, 12.8%, 36.4%, 7.3%, and 2.3%, respectively. In univariate analyses, SF-36 Physical Component Summary scores and VEINES-QOL and VEINES-Sym scores decreased significantly (ie, poorer QOL) with increasing CEAP class. Multivariate analyses controlling for age, sex, country, education, body mass index, years since CVD onset and comorbid conditions confirmed findings for VEINES-QOL and VEINES-Sym (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively).
Physician-evaluated clinical category, based on the CEAP classification, predicts patient-reported QOL and symptom severity in CVD.