A novel and potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibitor, FR247304 (5-chloro-2-[3-(4-phenyl-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)propyl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone), attenuates neuronal damage in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia.J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Aug; 310(2):425-36.JP
The activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) after exposure to nitric oxide or oxygen-free radicals can lead to cell injury via severe, irreversible depletion of NAD. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1 attenuates brain injury after focal ischemia and neurotoxicity in several neurodegenerative models in animals. FR247304 (5-chloro-2-[3-(4-phenyl-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)propyl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone) is a novel PARP-1 inhibitor that has recently been identified through structure-based drug design. In an enzyme kinetic analysis, FR247304 exhibits potent and competitive inhibition of PARP-1 activity, with a K(i) value of 35 nM. Here, we show that prevention of PARP activation by FR247304 treatment protects against both reactive oxygen species-induced PC12 cell injury in vitro and ischemic brain injury in vivo. In cell death model, treatment with FR247304 (10(-8)-10(-5) M) significantly reduced NAD depletion by PARP-1 inhibition and attenuated cell death after hydrogen peroxide (100 microM) exposure. After 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, poly(ADP-ribosy)lation and NAD depletion were markedly increased in the cortex and striatum from 1 h after reperfusion. The increased poly(ADP-ribose) immunoreactivity and NAD depletion were attenuated by FR247304 (32 mg/kg i.p.) treatment, and FR247304 significantly decreased ischemic brain damage measured at 24 h after reperfusion. Whereas other PARP inhibitors such as 3-aminobenzamide and PJ34 [N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydro-phenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylactamide] showed similar neuroprotective actions, they were less potent in in vitro assays and less efficacious in an in vivo model compared with FR247304. These results indicate that the novel PARP-1 inhibitor FR247304 exerts its neuroprotective efficacy in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of cerebral ischemia via potent PARP-1 inhibition and also suggest that FR247304 or its derivatives could be attractive therapeutic candidates for stroke and neurodegenerative disease.