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Functional MRI of the immediate impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical and subcortical motor circuits.
Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Apr; 19(7):1950-62.EJ

Abstract

Recent studies indicate that the cortical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may not be localized to the site of stimulation, but spread to other distant areas. Using echo-planar imaging with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast at 3 Tesla, we measured MRI signal changes in cortical and subcortical motor regions during high-frequency (3.125 Hz) repetitive TMS (rTMS) of the left sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1) at intensities above and below the active motor threshold in healthy humans. The supra- and subthreshold nature of the TMS pulses was confirmed by simultaneous electromyographic monitoring of a hand muscle. Suprathreshold rTMS activated a network of primary and secondary cortical motor regions including M1/S1, supplementary motor area, dorsal premotor cortex, cingulate motor area, the putamen and thalamus. Subthreshold rTMS elicited no MRI-detectable activity in the stimulated M1/S1, but otherwise led to a similar activation pattern as obtained for suprathreshold stimulation though at reduced intensity. In addition, we observed activations within the auditory system, including the transverse and superior temporal gyrus, inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus. The present findings support the notion that re-afferent feedback from evoked movements represents the dominant input to the motor system via M1 during suprathreshold stimulation. The BOLD MRI changes in motor areas distant from the site of subthreshold stimulation are likely to originate from altered synaptic transmissions due to induced excitability changes in M1/S1. They reflect the capability of rTMS to target both local and remote brain regions as tightly connected constituents of a cortical and subcortical network.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH am Max-Planck-Institut für biophysikalische Chemie, 37077 Göttingen, Germany. sbestma@gwdg.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15078569

Citation

Bestmann, Sven, et al. "Functional MRI of the Immediate Impact of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation On Cortical and Subcortical Motor Circuits." The European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 7, 2004, pp. 1950-62.
Bestmann S, Baudewig J, Siebner HR, et al. Functional MRI of the immediate impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical and subcortical motor circuits. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19(7):1950-62.
Bestmann, S., Baudewig, J., Siebner, H. R., Rothwell, J. C., & Frahm, J. (2004). Functional MRI of the immediate impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical and subcortical motor circuits. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 19(7), 1950-62.
Bestmann S, et al. Functional MRI of the Immediate Impact of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation On Cortical and Subcortical Motor Circuits. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;19(7):1950-62. PubMed PMID: 15078569.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Functional MRI of the immediate impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical and subcortical motor circuits. AU - Bestmann,Sven, AU - Baudewig,Jürgen, AU - Siebner,Hartwig R, AU - Rothwell,John C, AU - Frahm,Jens, PY - 2004/4/14/pubmed PY - 2004/5/25/medline PY - 2004/4/14/entrez SP - 1950 EP - 62 JF - The European journal of neuroscience JO - Eur J Neurosci VL - 19 IS - 7 N2 - Recent studies indicate that the cortical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may not be localized to the site of stimulation, but spread to other distant areas. Using echo-planar imaging with blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast at 3 Tesla, we measured MRI signal changes in cortical and subcortical motor regions during high-frequency (3.125 Hz) repetitive TMS (rTMS) of the left sensorimotor cortex (M1/S1) at intensities above and below the active motor threshold in healthy humans. The supra- and subthreshold nature of the TMS pulses was confirmed by simultaneous electromyographic monitoring of a hand muscle. Suprathreshold rTMS activated a network of primary and secondary cortical motor regions including M1/S1, supplementary motor area, dorsal premotor cortex, cingulate motor area, the putamen and thalamus. Subthreshold rTMS elicited no MRI-detectable activity in the stimulated M1/S1, but otherwise led to a similar activation pattern as obtained for suprathreshold stimulation though at reduced intensity. In addition, we observed activations within the auditory system, including the transverse and superior temporal gyrus, inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus. The present findings support the notion that re-afferent feedback from evoked movements represents the dominant input to the motor system via M1 during suprathreshold stimulation. The BOLD MRI changes in motor areas distant from the site of subthreshold stimulation are likely to originate from altered synaptic transmissions due to induced excitability changes in M1/S1. They reflect the capability of rTMS to target both local and remote brain regions as tightly connected constituents of a cortical and subcortical network. SN - 0953-816X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15078569/Functional_MRI_of_the_immediate_impact_of_transcranial_magnetic_stimulation_on_cortical_and_subcortical_motor_circuits_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0953-816X&date=2004&volume=19&issue=7&spage=1950 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -