Episodic memory in nonhumans: what, and where, is when?Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004 Apr; 14(2):192-7.CO
Episodic memory is defined as the recollection of specific events in one's past, accompanied by the experience of having been there personally. This definition presents high hurdles to the investigation of episodic memory in nonhumans. Recent studies operationalize episodic memory as memory for when and where an event occurred, for the order in which events occurred, or for an animal's own behavior. None of these approaches has yet generalized across species, and each fails to capture features of human episodic memory. Nonetheless, the study of episodic memory in nonhumans seems less daunting than it did five years ago. To demonstrate a correspondence between human episodic memory and nonhuman memory, progress is needed in three areas. Putative episodic memories in nonhumans should be shown to be; first, represented in long-term memory, rather than short-term or working memory; second, explicit, or accessible to introspection; and third, distinct from semantic memory, or general knowledge about the world.