Heterotopic ossification.J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2004 Mar-Apr; 12(2):116-25.JA
Heterotopic ossification, the formation of bone in soft tissue, requires inductive signaling pathways, inducible osteoprogenitor cells, and a heterotopic environment conducive to osteogenesis. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. Research into two rare heritable and developmental forms, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and progressive osseous heteroplasia, has provided clinical, pathologic, and genetic insights. In fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 and underexpression of multiple antagonists of this protein highlight the potential role of a potent morphogenetic gradient. Research on fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva also has led to the identification of the genetic cause of progressive osseous heteroplasia: inactivating mutations in the alpha subunit of the gene coding for the stimulatory G protein of adenylyl cyclase. Better understanding of the complex developmental and molecular pathology of these disorders may lead to more effective strategies to prevent and treat other, more common forms of heterotopic ossification.