Oral manifestations of HIV infection in relation to clinical and CD4 immunological status in northern and southern Thai patients.Oral Dis. 2004 May; 10(3):138-44.OD
To assess prevalence and variations in the oral manifestations of HIV in HIV-infected subjects in southern Thailand (a new HIV epidemic) and northern Thailand (a mature epidemic), and the association with age, sex, risk behaviours, CD4 count and medication used.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS
A total of 102 and 135 HIV-infected individuals were enrolled in northern and southern hospitals, respectively. Oral and haematological examination was performed after sociodemographic interview of the patients. Clinical history was retrieved from patients' medical records.
Oral candidiasis (OC, 55%), oral hairy leucoplakia (OHL, 21%) and HIV-associated-periodontal disease (14%) were among the most common oral lesions in southern Thailand. OHL (38%), OC (25%), HIV-associated-periodontal disease (15%) were the three most common lesions in the north. A significant association was found between any oral lesion, OC, particularly the pseudomembranous type (PC), and CD4 < 200 cells mm(-3) at both sites. A negative relationship was found between systemic antifungal treatment and OC including PC and erythematous candidiasis (EC) in the southern data. OHL showed a positive relationship with male sex and a negative relationship with antiretroviral treatment in the northern site. Younger age and being a current smoker were positively associated with oral lesions in the southern group.
OC, particularly PC, could be useful as a marker for immunosuppression, particularly where CD4 count cannot be determined routinely. Antifungal treatment is of benefit in the subjects who cannot afford highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).