A nationwide survey of deep fungal infections and fungal prophylaxis after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Japan.Bone Marrow Transplant. 2004 Jun; 33(12):1173-9.BM
We conducted a nationwide survey to define incidence of deep fungal infections and fungal prophylaxis practices after HSCT. In all, 63 institutions responded. Total number of in-patient transplantations was 935: 367 autologous, 414 allogeneic myeloablative, and 154 allogeneic reduced-intensity (RIST) (n=154). Number of patients who were cared for in a clean room at transplant was 261 (71%) in autologous, 409 (99%) in conventional and 93 (66%) in RIST, respectively. All patients received prophylactic antifungal agents; 89% fluconazole. Number of patients who received the dosage recommended in the CDC guidelines (400 mg/day) was 135 (42%) in conventional transplant and 34 (30%) in RIST (P=0.037). Number of patients who received fluconazole until engraftment and beyond day 75 in conventional transplant vs RIST was, respectively, 324 (100%) vs 109 (97%), and 39 (12%) vs 18 (16%), with no significant difference between the two groups. A total of 37 patients (4.0%) were diagnosed with deep fungal infections; autologous transplantation (0.03%), conventional transplantation (6.0%) and RIST (7.1%). Wide variations in antifungal prophylaxis practice according to the type of transplant and the institutions, and deep fungal infection remain significant problems in RIST.