Genotoxicity of 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-6) and 4-amino-3,3'-dichloro-5,4'-dinitro-biphenyl (ADDB) in goldfish (Carassius auratus) using the micronucleus test and the comet assay.Mutat Res. 2004 May 09; 560(1):33-40.MR
2-[2-(Acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-6) and 4-amino-3,3'-dichloro-5,4'-dinitrobiphenyl (ADDB) are two compounds, which show strong mutagenicity toward bacteria, that have been identified as major mutagens in river water in Japan. In the present study, we examined the genotoxicity of PBTA-6 and ADDB in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by the micronucleus test and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The frequencies of micronuclei in gill cells gradually increased until 96h after i.p. injection of PBTA-6 and ADDB at doses of 50mg/kg body weight, and then decreased 144h after injection. PBTA-6 induced micronuclei in gill cells dose-dependently at a dose range of 1-100mg/kg body weight, giving significantly high frequencies at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg body weight. On the other hand, no significant increase was observed in the peripheral erythrocytes of goldfish exposed to PBTA-6 or ADDB. In the comet assay, values of DNA tail moment and tail length in peripheral erythrocytes increased significantly until 6h after the i.p. injection of PBTA-6 (50mg/kg body weight), only to decrease by 9h after injection. Both the DNA tail moment and tail length were dose-dependently increased by injections of PBTA-6 at doses ranging from 1 to 50mg/kg. Significantly high values for tail moment and tail length were found in peripheral erythrocytes 3h after an i.p. injection of ADDB and persisted for up to 6h. These results show that both PBTA-6 and ADDB have genotoxic effects in goldfish.