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Simple behavioural and physical interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (2):CD003637CD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15-20% of five year olds, and up to 2% of young adults. Although there is a high rate of spontaneous remission, the social, emotional and psychological costs can be great. Simple behavioural methods of treating bedwetting include reward systems such as star charts given for dry nights, lifting or waking the children at night to urinate, retention control training to enlarge bladder capacity (bladder training) and fluid restriction.

OBJECTIVES

To assess the effects of simple behavioural interventions on nocturnal enuresis in children, and to compare these with other interventions.

SEARCH STRATEGY

We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group trials register (searched 18 September 2003). The reference list of a previous version of this review was also searched.

SELECTION CRITERIA

All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of simple behavioural interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children up to the age of 16. Trials focused solely on daytime wetting were excluded.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials and extracted data.

MAIN RESULTS

Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 702 children of whom 387 received a simple behavioural intervention. However, within each comparison each outcome was addressed by single trials only, precluding meta-analysis. In single small trials, reward systems (e.g. star charts), lifting and waking were each associated with significantly fewer wet nights, higher cure rates and lower relapse rates compared to controls. There was not enough evidence to evaluate retention control training (bladder training), whether compared with controls or dry bed training, or used as a supplement to alarms, or versus desmopressin. Cognitive therapy may have lower failure and relapse rates than star charts, but this finding was based on one small trial only. One small trial of poor quality suggested that star charts were initially less successful than amitriptyline but this difference did not persist after the treatments stopped. Another suggested that imipramine was better than fluid deprivation and avoidance of punishment.

REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS

Simple behavioural methods may be effective for some children, but further trials are needed, in particular in comparison with treatments known to be effective, such as desmopressin, tricyclic drugs and alarms. However, simple methods could be tried as first line therapy before considering alarms or drugs, because these alternative treatments may be more demanding and may have adverse effects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Polwarth Building, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, AB25 2ZD.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15106210

Citation

Glazener, C M A., and J H C. Evans. "Simple Behavioural and Physical Interventions for Nocturnal Enuresis in Children." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2004, p. CD003637.
Glazener CM, Evans JH. Simple behavioural and physical interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004.
Glazener, C. M., & Evans, J. H. (2004). Simple behavioural and physical interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2), p. CD003637.
Glazener CM, Evans JH. Simple Behavioural and Physical Interventions for Nocturnal Enuresis in Children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(2)CD003637. PubMed PMID: 15106210.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Simple behavioural and physical interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children. AU - Glazener,C M A, AU - Evans,J H C, PY - 2004/4/24/pubmed PY - 2004/8/18/medline PY - 2004/4/24/entrez SP - CD003637 EP - CD003637 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a socially disruptive and stressful condition which affects around 15-20% of five year olds, and up to 2% of young adults. Although there is a high rate of spontaneous remission, the social, emotional and psychological costs can be great. Simple behavioural methods of treating bedwetting include reward systems such as star charts given for dry nights, lifting or waking the children at night to urinate, retention control training to enlarge bladder capacity (bladder training) and fluid restriction. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of simple behavioural interventions on nocturnal enuresis in children, and to compare these with other interventions. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group trials register (searched 18 September 2003). The reference list of a previous version of this review was also searched. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of simple behavioural interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children up to the age of 16. Trials focused solely on daytime wetting were excluded. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 702 children of whom 387 received a simple behavioural intervention. However, within each comparison each outcome was addressed by single trials only, precluding meta-analysis. In single small trials, reward systems (e.g. star charts), lifting and waking were each associated with significantly fewer wet nights, higher cure rates and lower relapse rates compared to controls. There was not enough evidence to evaluate retention control training (bladder training), whether compared with controls or dry bed training, or used as a supplement to alarms, or versus desmopressin. Cognitive therapy may have lower failure and relapse rates than star charts, but this finding was based on one small trial only. One small trial of poor quality suggested that star charts were initially less successful than amitriptyline but this difference did not persist after the treatments stopped. Another suggested that imipramine was better than fluid deprivation and avoidance of punishment. REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS: Simple behavioural methods may be effective for some children, but further trials are needed, in particular in comparison with treatments known to be effective, such as desmopressin, tricyclic drugs and alarms. However, simple methods could be tried as first line therapy before considering alarms or drugs, because these alternative treatments may be more demanding and may have adverse effects. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15106210/Simple_behavioural_and_physical_interventions_for_nocturnal_enuresis_in_children_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003637.pub2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -