A liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method for quantification of specific metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids, selected herbicides, and deet in human urine.Anal Chem. 2004 May 01; 76(9):2453-61.AC
The ability to estimate low-dose human exposure to commonly used pesticides often is requested in epidemiologic studies. Therefore, fast and robust methods are necessary that can measure many analytes in the same sample. We have developed a method for high-throughput analysis of 19 markers of commonly used pesticides in human urine. The analytes were seven specific metabolites of organophosphorus pesticides, five metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids, six herbicides or their metabolites, and one insect repellant. Human urine (2 mL) was spiked with stable isotopically labeled analogues of the analytes, enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted using solid-phase extraction, concentrated, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample was divided into two portions and analyzed on two different mass spectrometers, one using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and the other using turbo ion spray atmospheric pressure ionization (TIS). All analytes except the pyrethroid metabolites were analyzed using APCI. The detection limits for all analytes ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 ng/mL of urine, with the majority (17) below 0.5 ng/mL. The analytical precision for the different analytes, estimated as both the within-day and between-day variation, was 3-14 and 4-19%, respectively. The extraction recoveries of the analytes ranged from 68 to 114%. The throughput, including calibration standards and quality control samples, is approximately 50 samples a day. However, the analysis time with the TIS application is much shorter, and if only pyrethroid metabolite data are of interest, the throughput can be increased to 100-150 samples/day.