Patterns of macular edema in patients with uveitis: qualitative and quantitative assessment using optical coherence tomography.Ophthalmology. 2004 May; 111(5):946-53.O
To describe the morphologic characteristics of uveitic macular edema by the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to investigate the correlation between tomographic features and visual acuity (VA).
Seventy consecutive patients with uveitis in a university-based practice with a clinical diagnosis of macular edema in at least one eye. Inclusion criteria were: (1) verification of macular edema by OCT, (2) adequate media clarity for fundus visualization, and (3) absence of coexisting ocular disease limiting visual potential.
Complete ophthalmic examination: best-corrected Snellen VA, slit-lamp examination, fundus biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, and OCT. Fluorescein angiography was performed in selected cases.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Best-corrected Snellen VA and tomographic features of the macula, including macular thickness measurement and correlation of macular thickness with VA.
Eighty-four eyes of 60 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean VA (Snellen test) was 20/36. There were 3 patterns of macular edema: diffuse macular edema (DME), cystoid macular edema (CME), and serous retinal detachment (RD). Serous retinal detachment was detected in 17 eyes (20.2%). Patients were classified into the following groups: DME (46 eyes, 54.8%), CME (21 eyes, 25%), DME and RD (5 eyes, 5.9%), CME and RD (12 eyes, 14.3%). Epiretinal membrane was detected by OCT in 34 eyes (40.5%). Eight eyes (9.5%) demonstrated vitreomacular traction. The mean retinal thickness at the central fovea was 333+/-171 microm (mean +/- standard deviation). Macular edema was located mainly in the outer retinal layers. Eyes with CME had significantly greater retinal thickness measurements than eyes with DME (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that VA was negatively correlated with increased macular thickness, presence of CME, and RD (P<0.05).
Optical coherence tomography demonstrated 3 patterns of macular edema in patients with uveitis: DME, CME, and RD. Epiretinal membrane coexisted in a significant percentage of patients. In patients with uveitis with clear media, the morphologic features of macular edema and macular thickness correlated with VA.