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Carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol concentrations in elderly human brain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Antioxidants, such as tocopherols and carotenoids, have been implicated in the prevention of degenerative diseases. Although correlations have been made between diseases and tissue levels of antioxidants, to date there are no reports of individual carotenoid concentrations in human brain.

OBJECTIVE

To measure the major carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol in frontal and occipital regions of human brain.

DESIGN

Ten samples of brain tissue from frontal lobe cortex and occipital cortex of five cadavers were examined. Sections were dissected into gray and white matter, extracted with organic solvents, and analyzed by HPLC.

RESULTS

At least 16 carotenoids, 3 tocopherols, and retinol were present in human brain. Major carotenoids were identified as lutein, zeaxanthin, anhydrolutein, alpha- cryptoxanthin, beta- cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, cis- and trans-betacarotene, and cis- and trans-lycopene. Xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids) accounted for 66-77% of total carotenoids in all brain regions examined. Similar to neural retina, the ratio of zeaxanthin to lutein was high and these two xanthophylls were significantly correlated (p <0.0001). The tocopherol isomers occurred in the brain over a wider range of mean concentrations (0.11-17.9 nmol/g) than either retinol (87.8 - 163.3 pmol/g) or the identified carotenoids (1.8-23.0 pmol/g).

CONCLUSIONS

The frontal cortex, generally vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease, had higher concentrations of all analytes than the occipital cortex which is generally unaffected. Moreover, frontal lobes, but not occipital lobes, exhibited an age-related decline in retinol, total tocopherols, total xanthophylls and total carotenoids. The importance of these differences and the role(s) of these antioxidants in the brain remain to be determined.

Authors+Show Affiliations

,

Craft Technologies, Inc., 4344 Frank Price Church Road, Wilson, NC 27893, USA. ncraft@crafttechnologies.com

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Source

MeSH

Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Alzheimer Disease
Antioxidants
Brain
Cadaver
Carotenoids
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Female
Frontal Lobe
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occipital Lobe
Tocopherols
Vitamin A

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15129301

Citation

Craft, N E., et al. "Carotenoid, Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations in Elderly Human Brain." The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, vol. 8, no. 3, 2004, pp. 156-62.
Craft NE, Haitema TB, Garnett KM, et al. Carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol concentrations in elderly human brain. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(3):156-62.
Craft, N. E., Haitema, T. B., Garnett, K. M., Fitch, K. A., & Dorey, C. K. (2004). Carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol concentrations in elderly human brain. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 8(3), pp. 156-62.
Craft NE, et al. Carotenoid, Tocopherol, and Retinol Concentrations in Elderly Human Brain. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(3):156-62. PubMed PMID: 15129301.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol concentrations in elderly human brain. AU - Craft,N E, AU - Haitema,T B, AU - Garnett,K M, AU - Fitch,K A, AU - Dorey,C K, PY - 2004/5/7/pubmed PY - 2004/8/27/medline PY - 2004/5/7/entrez SP - 156 EP - 62 JF - The journal of nutrition, health & aging JO - J Nutr Health Aging VL - 8 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Antioxidants, such as tocopherols and carotenoids, have been implicated in the prevention of degenerative diseases. Although correlations have been made between diseases and tissue levels of antioxidants, to date there are no reports of individual carotenoid concentrations in human brain. OBJECTIVE: To measure the major carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol in frontal and occipital regions of human brain. DESIGN: Ten samples of brain tissue from frontal lobe cortex and occipital cortex of five cadavers were examined. Sections were dissected into gray and white matter, extracted with organic solvents, and analyzed by HPLC. RESULTS: At least 16 carotenoids, 3 tocopherols, and retinol were present in human brain. Major carotenoids were identified as lutein, zeaxanthin, anhydrolutein, alpha- cryptoxanthin, beta- cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, cis- and trans-betacarotene, and cis- and trans-lycopene. Xanthophylls (oxygenated carotenoids) accounted for 66-77% of total carotenoids in all brain regions examined. Similar to neural retina, the ratio of zeaxanthin to lutein was high and these two xanthophylls were significantly correlated (p <0.0001). The tocopherol isomers occurred in the brain over a wider range of mean concentrations (0.11-17.9 nmol/g) than either retinol (87.8 - 163.3 pmol/g) or the identified carotenoids (1.8-23.0 pmol/g). CONCLUSIONS: The frontal cortex, generally vulnerable in Alzheimer's disease, had higher concentrations of all analytes than the occipital cortex which is generally unaffected. Moreover, frontal lobes, but not occipital lobes, exhibited an age-related decline in retinol, total tocopherols, total xanthophylls and total carotenoids. The importance of these differences and the role(s) of these antioxidants in the brain remain to be determined. SN - 1279-7707 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15129301/Carotenoid_tocopherol_and_retinol_concentrations_in_elderly_human_brain_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/vitamina.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -