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The effect of alcohol consumption on the prevalence of iron overload, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

Our aim was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and iron overload, iron deficiency, or iron deficiency anemia in the U.S. population.

METHODS

Adult participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not consume alcohol (n = 8839) were compared with participants who consumed < or =1 (n = 4976), >1 to < or =2 (n = 1153), or >2 (n = 915) alcoholic drinks/day during the preceding 12 months. We examined the following markers of iron overload: elevated serum transferrin-iron saturation (TS) level (>45%, >50%, and >60%), elevated serum ferritin level (>300, >400, >500, and >600 ng/mL), and combinations of both elevated serum TS and ferritin levels. Iron deficiency was defined as the presence of at least 2 of the following: serum ferritin level <12 ng/mL, serum TS level <15%, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin level >1.24 micromol/L. Iron deficiency anemia was defined as the presence of both iron deficiency and anemia.

RESULTS

Compared with nondrinkers, the prevalence of all markers of iron overload was significantly elevated among those who consumed >2 alcoholic drinks/day after adjusting for potential confounders. Consumption of any amount of alcohol was associated with a 40% reduction in the risk of iron deficiency anemia.

CONCLUSIONS

Consumption of up to 2 alcoholic drinks/day seems to be associated with reduced risk of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia without a concomitant increase in the risk of iron overload. Consumption of >2 alcoholic drinks/day is associated with a significant elevation in the risk of iron overload.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Medicine and Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington Medical Center, and VA Medical Center, 1660 S. Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. georgei@medicine.washington.edu

    , , ,

    Source

    Gastroenterology 126:5 2004 May pg 1293-301

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Anemia, Iron-Deficiency
    Biomarkers
    Deficiency Diseases
    Female
    Humans
    Iron
    Iron Overload
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutrition Surveys
    Prevalence
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15131790

    Citation

    Ioannou, George N., et al. "The Effect of Alcohol Consumption On the Prevalence of Iron Overload, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anemia." Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 5, 2004, pp. 1293-301.
    Ioannou GN, Dominitz JA, Weiss NS, et al. The effect of alcohol consumption on the prevalence of iron overload, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia. Gastroenterology. 2004;126(5):1293-301.
    Ioannou, G. N., Dominitz, J. A., Weiss, N. S., Heagerty, P. J., & Kowdley, K. V. (2004). The effect of alcohol consumption on the prevalence of iron overload, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia. Gastroenterology, 126(5), pp. 1293-301.
    Ioannou GN, et al. The Effect of Alcohol Consumption On the Prevalence of Iron Overload, Iron Deficiency, and Iron Deficiency Anemia. Gastroenterology. 2004;126(5):1293-301. PubMed PMID: 15131790.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of alcohol consumption on the prevalence of iron overload, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia. AU - Ioannou,George N, AU - Dominitz,Jason A, AU - Weiss,Noel S, AU - Heagerty,Patrick J, AU - Kowdley,Kris V, PY - 2004/5/8/pubmed PY - 2004/6/24/medline PY - 2004/5/8/entrez SP - 1293 EP - 301 JF - Gastroenterology JO - Gastroenterology VL - 126 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND & AIMS: Our aim was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and iron overload, iron deficiency, or iron deficiency anemia in the U.S. population. METHODS: Adult participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who did not consume alcohol (n = 8839) were compared with participants who consumed < or =1 (n = 4976), >1 to < or =2 (n = 1153), or >2 (n = 915) alcoholic drinks/day during the preceding 12 months. We examined the following markers of iron overload: elevated serum transferrin-iron saturation (TS) level (>45%, >50%, and >60%), elevated serum ferritin level (>300, >400, >500, and >600 ng/mL), and combinations of both elevated serum TS and ferritin levels. Iron deficiency was defined as the presence of at least 2 of the following: serum ferritin level <12 ng/mL, serum TS level <15%, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin level >1.24 micromol/L. Iron deficiency anemia was defined as the presence of both iron deficiency and anemia. RESULTS: Compared with nondrinkers, the prevalence of all markers of iron overload was significantly elevated among those who consumed >2 alcoholic drinks/day after adjusting for potential confounders. Consumption of any amount of alcohol was associated with a 40% reduction in the risk of iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of up to 2 alcoholic drinks/day seems to be associated with reduced risk of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia without a concomitant increase in the risk of iron overload. Consumption of >2 alcoholic drinks/day is associated with a significant elevation in the risk of iron overload. SN - 0016-5085 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15131790/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016508504000940 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -