Prime

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases.

Abstract

Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and it has been calculated that 80% of the susceptibility to develop Graves' disease is attributable to genes. The concordance rate for AITD among monozygotic twins is, however, well below 1 and environmental factors thus must play an important role. We have attempted to carry out a comprehensive review of all the environmental and hormonal risk factors thought to bring about AITD in genetically predisposed individuals. Low birth weight, iodine excess and deficiency, selenium deficiency, parity, oral contraceptive use, reproductive span, fetal microchimerism, stress, seasonal variation, allergy, smoking, radiation damage to the thyroid gland, viral and bacterial infections all play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid disorders. The use of certain drugs (lithium, interferon-alpha, Campath-1H) also increases the risk of the development of autoimmunity against the thyroid gland. Further research is warranted into the importance of fetal microchimerism and of viral infections capable of mounting an endogenous interferon-alpha response.

Links

  • FREE Publisher Full Text
  • Authors

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Autoimmune Diseases
    Environment
    Genetic Predisposition to Disease
    Humans
    Thyroid Diseases

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15132715

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - The environment and autoimmune thyroid diseases. AU - Prummel,Mark F, AU - Strieder,Thea, AU - Wiersinga,Wilmar M, PY - 2004/5/11/pubmed PY - 2004/7/2/medline PY - 2004/5/11/entrez SP - 605 EP - 18 JF - European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies JO - Eur. J. Endocrinol. VL - 150 IS - 5 N2 - Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and it has been calculated that 80% of the susceptibility to develop Graves' disease is attributable to genes. The concordance rate for AITD among monozygotic twins is, however, well below 1 and environmental factors thus must play an important role. We have attempted to carry out a comprehensive review of all the environmental and hormonal risk factors thought to bring about AITD in genetically predisposed individuals. Low birth weight, iodine excess and deficiency, selenium deficiency, parity, oral contraceptive use, reproductive span, fetal microchimerism, stress, seasonal variation, allergy, smoking, radiation damage to the thyroid gland, viral and bacterial infections all play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid disorders. The use of certain drugs (lithium, interferon-alpha, Campath-1H) also increases the risk of the development of autoimmunity against the thyroid gland. Further research is warranted into the importance of fetal microchimerism and of viral infections capable of mounting an endogenous interferon-alpha response. SN - 0804-4643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15132715/full_citation L2 - http://eje-online.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15132715 ER -