Influence of components of infant formulas on in vitro iron, zinc, and calcium availability.J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 19; 52(10):3202-7.JA
The effect of casein content and Ca concentration on Fe, Zn, and Ca dialyzability was assessed using a response surface design. Tested casein levels were 5.31-13.75 g/L (34.8-90.2% of total protein). Whey protein was added to complete 15.25 g/L total protein. Calcium levels were adjusted with calcium citrate within a range between 417.4 and 804.9 mg/L. Through the experimental design utilized, we found that of both assessed factors, only the casein content significantly influenced Fe and Zn dialyzability. Protein composition did not influence calcium dialyzability, and calcium concentration did not affect either Fe or Zn dialyzability. No effect of casein-Ca on iron, zinc, and calcium dialyzability was found. According to these results, whey-dominant formulas are less prone to hamper mineral availability, and are therefore suitable in order to improve iron and zinc availability.