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Nutritional support for acute pancreatitis.
Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1992 Sep; 175(3):275-84.SG

Abstract

The current review has summarized current data relevant to the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis. Selection of the most appropriate form of nutritional support for patients with acute pancreatitis is intimately linked to a thorough understanding of the effects of various forms of enteral and parenteral nutrition on physiologic exocrine secretory mechanisms. Two basic concepts have emerged from the multiple studies that have addressed these issues to date: 1, enteral feeds should have low fat composition and be delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz to minimize exocrine pancreatic secretion and 2, parenteral substrate infusions, alone or in combinations similar to those administered during TPN, do not stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. From a practical standpoint, most patients with acute pancreatitis are diagnosed by nonoperative means and will manifest some degree of paralytic ileus during the early phase of the disease. Therefore, jejunal feeds are usually not a therapeutic option early in the course of this disease. On the basis of the clinical studies reviewed herein we propose general guidelines for the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis: 1, most patients with mild uncomplicated pancreatitis (one to two prognostic signs) do not benefit from nutritional support; 2, nutritional support should begin early in the course of patients with moderate to severe disease (as soon as hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory stability permit); 3, initial nutritional support should be through the parenteral route and include fat emulsion in amounts sufficient to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency (no objective data exist to recommend specific amino acid formulations); 4, patients requiring operation for diagnosis or complications of the disease should have a feeding jejunostomy placed at the time of operation for subsequent enteral nutrition using a low fat formula, such as Precision HN (Sandoz, 1.3 percent calories as fat), Criticare HN (Mead Johnson, 3 percent calories as fat) or Vivonex High Nitrogen (Norwich Eaton, 0.87 percent calories as fat), and 5, oral feedings should be low fat in composition and should be reinstituted using traditional clinical criteria, including the symptoms of the patient, physical examination and computed tomographic appearance of the pancreas (clinicians should bear in mind the well documented exocrine stimulatory effects of even low fat oral feeds and the risks of early refeeding). These general guidelines must be individualized to incorporate what is perhaps the most important clinical variable--the premorbid nutritional state of the patient.(

ABSTRACT

TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Surgery, New York University Medical Center, New York 10016.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1514164

Citation

Pisters, P W., and J H. Ranson. "Nutritional Support for Acute Pancreatitis." Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics, vol. 175, no. 3, 1992, pp. 275-84.
Pisters PW, Ranson JH. Nutritional support for acute pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1992;175(3):275-84.
Pisters, P. W., & Ranson, J. H. (1992). Nutritional support for acute pancreatitis. Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics, 175(3), 275-84.
Pisters PW, Ranson JH. Nutritional Support for Acute Pancreatitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1992;175(3):275-84. PubMed PMID: 1514164.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nutritional support for acute pancreatitis. AU - Pisters,P W, AU - Ranson,J H, PY - 1992/9/1/pubmed PY - 1992/9/1/medline PY - 1992/9/1/entrez SP - 275 EP - 84 JF - Surgery, gynecology & obstetrics JO - Surg Gynecol Obstet VL - 175 IS - 3 N2 - The current review has summarized current data relevant to the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis. Selection of the most appropriate form of nutritional support for patients with acute pancreatitis is intimately linked to a thorough understanding of the effects of various forms of enteral and parenteral nutrition on physiologic exocrine secretory mechanisms. Two basic concepts have emerged from the multiple studies that have addressed these issues to date: 1, enteral feeds should have low fat composition and be delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz to minimize exocrine pancreatic secretion and 2, parenteral substrate infusions, alone or in combinations similar to those administered during TPN, do not stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. From a practical standpoint, most patients with acute pancreatitis are diagnosed by nonoperative means and will manifest some degree of paralytic ileus during the early phase of the disease. Therefore, jejunal feeds are usually not a therapeutic option early in the course of this disease. On the basis of the clinical studies reviewed herein we propose general guidelines for the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis: 1, most patients with mild uncomplicated pancreatitis (one to two prognostic signs) do not benefit from nutritional support; 2, nutritional support should begin early in the course of patients with moderate to severe disease (as soon as hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory stability permit); 3, initial nutritional support should be through the parenteral route and include fat emulsion in amounts sufficient to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency (no objective data exist to recommend specific amino acid formulations); 4, patients requiring operation for diagnosis or complications of the disease should have a feeding jejunostomy placed at the time of operation for subsequent enteral nutrition using a low fat formula, such as Precision HN (Sandoz, 1.3 percent calories as fat), Criticare HN (Mead Johnson, 3 percent calories as fat) or Vivonex High Nitrogen (Norwich Eaton, 0.87 percent calories as fat), and 5, oral feedings should be low fat in composition and should be reinstituted using traditional clinical criteria, including the symptoms of the patient, physical examination and computed tomographic appearance of the pancreas (clinicians should bear in mind the well documented exocrine stimulatory effects of even low fat oral feeds and the risks of early refeeding). These general guidelines must be individualized to incorporate what is perhaps the most important clinical variable--the premorbid nutritional state of the patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) SN - 0039-6087 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1514164/Nutritional_support_for_acute_pancreatitis_ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/9663 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -