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The protective effect of parental expectations against early adolescent smoking initiation.
Health Educ Res. 2004 Oct; 19(5):561-9.HE

Abstract

Substantial research and theory suggests that smoking initiation is socially mediated, with both peers and parents playing important roles. To learn more about how parenting behaviors influence smoking initiation, students (n=1002) from four middle schools were surveyed at the beginning of the sixth grade (T1), and the end of the sixth (T2) and seventh (T3) grades. T1 and T2-T1 predictors were regressed on smoking initiation at the end of seventh grade. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, association with friends who smoke, attitudes toward deviance, outcome expectations for smoking, perceived school climate, parental expectations, parental involvement at T1 and increases in these variables (T2-T1) were associated with smoking initiation at T3, but only the T1 measures of social competence, academic engagement, school adjustment, perceived prevalence, parental monitoring and parental involvement were associated with smoking initiation at T3. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, parental expectations were negatively associated, and increases in attitudes accepting of deviance and affiliation with friends who smoke were positively associated with smoking initiation. Analysis of interactions indicated that parental expectations and monitoring did not mediate the effect on smoking initiation of attitudes toward deviance or the number of friends who smoke. These findings provide evidence that parental expectations may protect early adolescents against smoking even in the context of increases in favorable attitudes and friends who smoking.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Prevention Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20852-7510, USA. MORTONB@exchange.nih.gov

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15150137

Citation

Simons-Morton, Bruce G.. "The Protective Effect of Parental Expectations Against Early Adolescent Smoking Initiation." Health Education Research, vol. 19, no. 5, 2004, pp. 561-9.
Simons-Morton BG. The protective effect of parental expectations against early adolescent smoking initiation. Health Educ Res. 2004;19(5):561-9.
Simons-Morton, B. G. (2004). The protective effect of parental expectations against early adolescent smoking initiation. Health Education Research, 19(5), 561-9.
Simons-Morton BG. The Protective Effect of Parental Expectations Against Early Adolescent Smoking Initiation. Health Educ Res. 2004;19(5):561-9. PubMed PMID: 15150137.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The protective effect of parental expectations against early adolescent smoking initiation. A1 - Simons-Morton,Bruce G, Y1 - 2004/05/17/ PY - 2004/5/20/pubmed PY - 2004/11/17/medline PY - 2004/5/20/entrez SP - 561 EP - 9 JF - Health education research JO - Health Educ Res VL - 19 IS - 5 N2 - Substantial research and theory suggests that smoking initiation is socially mediated, with both peers and parents playing important roles. To learn more about how parenting behaviors influence smoking initiation, students (n=1002) from four middle schools were surveyed at the beginning of the sixth grade (T1), and the end of the sixth (T2) and seventh (T3) grades. T1 and T2-T1 predictors were regressed on smoking initiation at the end of seventh grade. In bivariate logistic regression analyses, association with friends who smoke, attitudes toward deviance, outcome expectations for smoking, perceived school climate, parental expectations, parental involvement at T1 and increases in these variables (T2-T1) were associated with smoking initiation at T3, but only the T1 measures of social competence, academic engagement, school adjustment, perceived prevalence, parental monitoring and parental involvement were associated with smoking initiation at T3. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, parental expectations were negatively associated, and increases in attitudes accepting of deviance and affiliation with friends who smoke were positively associated with smoking initiation. Analysis of interactions indicated that parental expectations and monitoring did not mediate the effect on smoking initiation of attitudes toward deviance or the number of friends who smoke. These findings provide evidence that parental expectations may protect early adolescents against smoking even in the context of increases in favorable attitudes and friends who smoking. SN - 0268-1153 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15150137/The_protective_effect_of_parental_expectations_against_early_adolescent_smoking_initiation_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/her/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/her/cyg071 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -