Thermodynamic basis of electron transfer in dihydroorotate dehydrogenase B from Lactococcus lactis: analysis by potentiometry, EPR spectroscopy, and ENDOR spectroscopy.Biochemistry. 2004 Jun 01; 43(21):6498-510.B
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase B (DHODB) is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of dihydroorotate to orotate and the reduction of NAD(+). The enzyme is a dimer of heterodimers containing an FMN, an FAD, and a 2Fe-2S center. UV-visible, EPR, and ENDOR spectroscopies have been used to determine the reduction potentials of the flavins and the 2Fe-2S center and to characterize radicals and their interactions. Reductive titration using dithionite indicates a five-electron capacity for DHODB. The midpoint reduction potential of the 2Fe-2S center (-212 +/- 3 mV) was determined from analysis of absorption data at 540 nm, where absorption contributions from the two flavins are small. The midpoint reduction potentials of the oxidized/semiquinone (E(1)) and semiquinone/hydroquinone (E(2)) couples for the FMN (E(1) = -301 +/- 6 mV; E(2) = -252 +/- 8 mV) and FAD (E(1) = -312 +/- 6 mV; E(2) = -297 +/- 5 mV) were determined from analysis of spectral changes at 630 nm. Corresponding values for the midpoint reduction potentials for FMN (E(1) = -298 +/- 4 mV; E(2) = -259 +/- 5 mV) in the isolated catalytic subunit (subunit D, which lacks the 2Fe-2S center and FAD) are consistent with the values determined for the FMN couples in DHODB. During reductive titration of DHODB, small amounts of the neutral blue semiquinone are observed at approximately 630 nm, consistent with the measured midpoint reduction potentials of the flavins. An ENDOR spectrum of substrate-reduced DHODB identifies hyperfine couplings to proton nuclei similar to those recorded for the blue semiquinone of free flavins in aqueous solution, thus confirming the presence of this species in DHODB. Spectral features observed during EPR spectroscopy of dithionite-reduced DHODB are consistent with the midpoint reduction potentials determined using UV-visible spectroscopy and further identify an unusual EPR signal with very small rhombic anisotropy and g values of 2.02, 1.99, and 1.96. This unusual signal is assigned to the formation of a spin interacting state between the FMN semiquinone species and the reduced 2Fe-2S center. Reduction of DHODB using an excess of NADH or dihydroorotate produces EPR spectra that are distinct from those produced by dithionite. From potentiometric studies, the reduction of the 2Fe-2S center and the reduction of the FMN occur concomitantly. The study provides a detailed thermodynamic framework for electron transfer in this complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein.