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Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women.
Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79(6):962-8AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Increases in both the portion size and energy density of food have both been shown to increase energy intake, but the combined effects of such increases have not been investigated.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to determine the combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women.

DESIGN

This study used a within-subjects design. Once a week for 6 wk, 39 women were served breakfast, lunch, and dinner ad libitum. The main entrée at lunch was formulated in 2 versions that varied in energy density (5.23 or 7.32 kJ/g), each of which was served in 3 different portion sizes (500, 700, or 900 g). The 2 versions were matched for macronutrient composition and palatability. Breakfast and dinner were standard meals.

RESULTS

Increases in portion size and energy density led to independent and additive increases in energy intake (P <0.0001). Subjects consumed 56% more energy (925 kJ) when served the largest portion of the higher energy-dense entrée than when served the smallest portion of the lower energy-dense entrée. Subjects did not compensate for the additional intake by eating less at the subsequent meal. Despite substantial differences in energy intake, no systematic differences in ratings of hunger and fullness across conditions were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

The energy density and the portion size of a food act independently to affect energy intake. The findings indicate that large portions of foods with a high energy density may facilitate the overconsumption of energy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory for the Study of Human Ingestive Behavior, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802-6501, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15159224

Citation

Kral, Tanja V E., et al. "Combined Effects of Energy Density and Portion Size On Energy Intake in Women." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 6, 2004, pp. 962-8.
Kral TV, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(6):962-8.
Kral, T. V., Roe, L. S., & Rolls, B. J. (2004). Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(6), pp. 962-8.
Kral TV, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Combined Effects of Energy Density and Portion Size On Energy Intake in Women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(6):962-8. PubMed PMID: 15159224.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. AU - Kral,Tanja V E, AU - Roe,Liane S, AU - Rolls,Barbara J, PY - 2004/5/26/pubmed PY - 2004/6/16/medline PY - 2004/5/26/entrez SP - 962 EP - 8 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 79 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Increases in both the portion size and energy density of food have both been shown to increase energy intake, but the combined effects of such increases have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. DESIGN: This study used a within-subjects design. Once a week for 6 wk, 39 women were served breakfast, lunch, and dinner ad libitum. The main entrée at lunch was formulated in 2 versions that varied in energy density (5.23 or 7.32 kJ/g), each of which was served in 3 different portion sizes (500, 700, or 900 g). The 2 versions were matched for macronutrient composition and palatability. Breakfast and dinner were standard meals. RESULTS: Increases in portion size and energy density led to independent and additive increases in energy intake (P <0.0001). Subjects consumed 56% more energy (925 kJ) when served the largest portion of the higher energy-dense entrée than when served the smallest portion of the lower energy-dense entrée. Subjects did not compensate for the additional intake by eating less at the subsequent meal. Despite substantial differences in energy intake, no systematic differences in ratings of hunger and fullness across conditions were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The energy density and the portion size of a food act independently to affect energy intake. The findings indicate that large portions of foods with a high energy density may facilitate the overconsumption of energy. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15159224/Combined_effects_of_energy_density_and_portion_size_on_energy_intake_in_women_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/79.6.962 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -