Influence of antazoline and ketotifen on the anticonvulsant activity of conventional antiepileptics against maximal electroshock in mice.Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004 Aug; 14(4):307-18.EN
Experimental studies have indicated that the central histaminergic system plays an important role in the inhibition of seizures through the stimulation of histamine H1 receptors. H1 receptor antagonists, including classical antiallergic drugs, occasionally may induce convulsions in healthy children and patients with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of antazoline and ketotifen (two H1 receptor antagonists) on the anticonvulsant activity of antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in mice. The following antiepileptic drugs were used: valproate, carbamazepine, diphenylhydantoin and phenobarbital. In addition, the effects of antiepileptic drugs alone or in combination with antazoline or ketotifen were studied on long-term memory (tested in the passive avoidance task) and motor performance (evaluated in the chimney test), acutely and after 7-day treatment with these H1 receptor antagonists. The influence of antazoline and ketotifen on the free plasma and brain levels of the antiepileptics was also evaluated. Antazoline (at 0.5 mg/kg), given acutely and after 7-day treatment, significantly diminished the electroconvulsive threshold. Similarly, ketotifen, after acute and chronic doses of 8 mg/kg markedly reduced the threshold for electroconvulsions. In both cases, antazoline and ketotifen were without effect upon this parameter at lower doses. Antazoline (0.25 mg/kg) significantly raised the ED50 value of carbamazepine against MES (both, acutely and after 7-day treatment). Furthermore antazoline (0.25 mg/kg) also reduced the anticonvulsant activity of diphenylhydantoin, but only after repeated administration, without modifying the brain and free plasma level of this drug. Moreover, valproate and phenobarbital did not change their protective activity when combined with antazoline. Ketotifen (4 mg/kg) possessed a biphasic action, acutely it enhanced the anticonvulsant action of carbamazepine and phenobarbital while, following 7-day treatment, reduced the antiseizure activity of carbamazepine. Ketotifen did not affect the free plasma or brain levels of antiepileptics tested. Only acute antazoline (0.25 mg/kg) applied with valproate impaired the performance of mice evaluated in the chimney test. Ketotifen (4 mg/kg) co-administered with conventional antiepileptic drugs impaired motor coordination in mice treated with valproate, phenobarbital or diphenylhydantoin. Acute and chronic antazoline (0.25 mg/kg) alone or in combination with antiepileptic drugs did not disturb long-term memory, tested in the passive avoidance task. Similarly, ketotifen (4 mg/kg) did not impair long-term memory, acutely and after 7-day treatment. However, valproate alone or in combination with chronic ketotifen (4 mg/kg) worsened long-term memory. The results of this study indicate that H1 receptor antagonists, crossing the blood brain barrier, should be used with caution in epileptic patients. This is because antazoline reduced the protective potential of diphenylhydantoin and carbamazepine. Also, ketotifen reduced the protection offered by carbamazepine and elevated the adverse activity of diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital and valproate.