[Physical activity as a therapeutic tool in type 2 diabetes: the rationale].Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2004; 65(1 Suppl):S44-51AE
Physical exercise is an important component of type 2 diabetes mellitus management. Acute physical exercise, on a day by day basis, has a clear hypoglycaemic effect. Physical exercise, on a regular basis at a sufficient level, has numerous favourable effects: improvement of glycaemic control (HbA1c) and insulin sensitivity, decrease of visceral fat mass, increase of skeletal muscle mass, favourable effects on various cardiovascular risk factors (arterial pressure, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, etc.). However, precise characteristics of physical exercise to be advised in type 2 diabetic patients (type of exercise, frequency, intensity, etc.) are still a matter of debates, as well as lack of practical guidance in/or differences between the various current recommendations. The crucial point, however, remains their feasibility, as well as the lack of long term patient's motivation and compliance which may partly explain the current low level of physical exercise observed in type 2 diabetic patients.