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Iron status in 2-year-old Icelandic children and associations with dietary intake and growth.
Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58(6):901-6EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of food and nutrient intake at 2 y and growth from birth on iron status at 2 y in a population with high birth weight.

DESIGN

In a cross-sectional study, children's food consumption and body size measurements were recorded and blood samples taken. Weighed 3-day food records were used to analyse food and nutrient intake.

SETTING

Children were recruited from across Iceland from the Icelandic National Registry by the University of Iceland, Computing Services. The children in the sample were born over a 1-y period.

SUBJECTS

Parents of randomly selected 2-year-old children (n=130) were contacted, and 72% (n=94) participated. Blood samples were analysed in 76% (n=71) of participating children.

RESULTS

In total, 9% of the children were iron-deficient (serum ferritin (SF)<12 microg/l and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) <74 fl) and 1.4% were also anaemic (Hb<105 g/l), while 27% of children were iron-depleted (SF<12 microg/l). Iron status indices were negatively associated with cow's milk consumption. Half of children consuming>500 g cow's milk/day (n=10) were iron-deficient, while one child in 58 consuming<500 g cow's milk/day had iron deficiency (P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses, also biscuits and crackers consumption was positively associated with MCV. Weight gain from birth to 2 y was negatively associated with SF (adjusted R(2)=0.15; P=0.002; n=58). Iron-depleted children were heavier than children not iron-depleted (14.7+/-1.3 vs 13.8+/-1.7 kg; P=0.043), had higher BMI (17.7+/-1.5 vs 16.7+/-1.4 kg/m(2); P=0.028) and gained more weight from birth (11.2+/-1.3 vs. 10.0+/-1.6 kg; P=0.011).

CONCLUSIONS

The results suggest that cow's milk consumption above 500 g/day should be avoided at the age of 2 y for better iron status. Iron depletion at 2 y is associated with faster growth from birth.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali-University Hospital and Department of Food Science, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. bsg@hi.isNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15164111

Citation

Gunnarsson, B S., et al. "Iron Status in 2-year-old Icelandic Children and Associations With Dietary Intake and Growth." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 6, 2004, pp. 901-6.
Gunnarsson BS, Thorsdottir I, Palsson G. Iron status in 2-year-old Icelandic children and associations with dietary intake and growth. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(6):901-6.
Gunnarsson, B. S., Thorsdottir, I., & Palsson, G. (2004). Iron status in 2-year-old Icelandic children and associations with dietary intake and growth. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(6), pp. 901-6.
Gunnarsson BS, Thorsdottir I, Palsson G. Iron Status in 2-year-old Icelandic Children and Associations With Dietary Intake and Growth. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(6):901-6. PubMed PMID: 15164111.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron status in 2-year-old Icelandic children and associations with dietary intake and growth. AU - Gunnarsson,B S, AU - Thorsdottir,I, AU - Palsson,G, PY - 2004/5/28/pubmed PY - 2004/9/8/medline PY - 2004/5/28/entrez SP - 901 EP - 6 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 58 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of food and nutrient intake at 2 y and growth from birth on iron status at 2 y in a population with high birth weight. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, children's food consumption and body size measurements were recorded and blood samples taken. Weighed 3-day food records were used to analyse food and nutrient intake. SETTING: Children were recruited from across Iceland from the Icelandic National Registry by the University of Iceland, Computing Services. The children in the sample were born over a 1-y period. SUBJECTS: Parents of randomly selected 2-year-old children (n=130) were contacted, and 72% (n=94) participated. Blood samples were analysed in 76% (n=71) of participating children. RESULTS: In total, 9% of the children were iron-deficient (serum ferritin (SF)<12 microg/l and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) <74 fl) and 1.4% were also anaemic (Hb<105 g/l), while 27% of children were iron-depleted (SF<12 microg/l). Iron status indices were negatively associated with cow's milk consumption. Half of children consuming>500 g cow's milk/day (n=10) were iron-deficient, while one child in 58 consuming<500 g cow's milk/day had iron deficiency (P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses, also biscuits and crackers consumption was positively associated with MCV. Weight gain from birth to 2 y was negatively associated with SF (adjusted R(2)=0.15; P=0.002; n=58). Iron-depleted children were heavier than children not iron-depleted (14.7+/-1.3 vs 13.8+/-1.7 kg; P=0.043), had higher BMI (17.7+/-1.5 vs 16.7+/-1.4 kg/m(2); P=0.028) and gained more weight from birth (11.2+/-1.3 vs. 10.0+/-1.6 kg; P=0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cow's milk consumption above 500 g/day should be avoided at the age of 2 y for better iron status. Iron depletion at 2 y is associated with faster growth from birth. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15164111/Iron_status_in_2_year_old_Icelandic_children_and_associations_with_dietary_intake_and_growth_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601910 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -