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Effectiveness of weekly vitamin A (10,000 IU) and iron (60 mg) supplementation for adolescent boys and girls through schools in rural and urban East Java, Indonesia.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun; 58(6):927-37.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

High prevalences of vitamin A deficiency and anaemia among adolescents warrant interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based supplementation to reduce anaemia and improve vitamin A status.

DESIGN

School-based, grade-randomized, intervention.

SUBJECTS AND SETTING

In all, 1757 girls and 1859 boys, aged 12-15 y, in 24 Junior High Schools.

INTERVENTIONS

Weekly supplementation for 14 weeks with 60 mg iron and 250 microg folate (Fe group; n=978), 10 000 IU vitamin A (VA group; n=970) or both (VAFe group; n=1042) to subjects in 15 schools, compared to subjects in nine other schools not receiving supplements (control; n=626).

RESULTS

The baseline anaemia prevalence (Hb <120 g/l) in girls was 20% (prepubertal) and 26% (pubertal), and in boys 24% (pre-pubertal) and 11% (pubertal). Serum retinol concentrations were low (<1.05 micromol/l) in 41% of boys and 45% of girls. The interventions did not increase haemoglobin concentrations. Serum retinol concentration of boys, but not girls, in the VA group increased (0.33 vs 0.07 micromol/l in controls; P<0.01). The risk factors for low serum retinol concentration were lower baseline serum retinol concentration (OR 0.02-0.03) with, for girls, nightblindness at baseline (OR 5.88), and for boys, not receiving vitamin A (OR control: 1.00; VA: 0.37; Fe: 0.77; VAFe: 0.34) and maternal illiteracy (OR mother never attended school 1.00, mother received any formal education 0.17-0.33).

CONCLUSIONS

Supplementation with vitamin A increased serum retinol concentration of boys. Iron supplementation did not change Hb. This appeared to be due to poor compliance, and partly related to side effects.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Helen Keller International Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia. ddsoekarjo@hkiasiapacific.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15164114

Citation

Soekarjo, D D., et al. "Effectiveness of Weekly Vitamin a (10,000 IU) and Iron (60 Mg) Supplementation for Adolescent Boys and Girls Through Schools in Rural and Urban East Java, Indonesia." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 58, no. 6, 2004, pp. 927-37.
Soekarjo DD, Pee Sd Sd, Kusin JA, et al. Effectiveness of weekly vitamin A (10,000 IU) and iron (60 mg) supplementation for adolescent boys and girls through schools in rural and urban East Java, Indonesia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(6):927-37.
Soekarjo, D. D., Pee Sd, S. d., Kusin, J. A., Schreurs, W. H., Schultink, W., Muhilal, ., & Bloem, M. W. (2004). Effectiveness of weekly vitamin A (10,000 IU) and iron (60 mg) supplementation for adolescent boys and girls through schools in rural and urban East Java, Indonesia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(6), 927-37.
Soekarjo DD, et al. Effectiveness of Weekly Vitamin a (10,000 IU) and Iron (60 Mg) Supplementation for Adolescent Boys and Girls Through Schools in Rural and Urban East Java, Indonesia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(6):927-37. PubMed PMID: 15164114.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effectiveness of weekly vitamin A (10,000 IU) and iron (60 mg) supplementation for adolescent boys and girls through schools in rural and urban East Java, Indonesia. AU - Soekarjo,D D, AU - Pee Sd,S de, AU - Kusin,J A, AU - Schreurs,W H P, AU - Schultink,W, AU - Muhilal,, AU - Bloem,M W, PY - 2004/5/28/pubmed PY - 2004/9/8/medline PY - 2004/5/28/entrez SP - 927 EP - 37 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 58 IS - 6 N2 - OBJECTIVE: High prevalences of vitamin A deficiency and anaemia among adolescents warrant interventions. This study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based supplementation to reduce anaemia and improve vitamin A status. DESIGN: School-based, grade-randomized, intervention. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In all, 1757 girls and 1859 boys, aged 12-15 y, in 24 Junior High Schools. INTERVENTIONS: Weekly supplementation for 14 weeks with 60 mg iron and 250 microg folate (Fe group; n=978), 10 000 IU vitamin A (VA group; n=970) or both (VAFe group; n=1042) to subjects in 15 schools, compared to subjects in nine other schools not receiving supplements (control; n=626). RESULTS: The baseline anaemia prevalence (Hb <120 g/l) in girls was 20% (prepubertal) and 26% (pubertal), and in boys 24% (pre-pubertal) and 11% (pubertal). Serum retinol concentrations were low (<1.05 micromol/l) in 41% of boys and 45% of girls. The interventions did not increase haemoglobin concentrations. Serum retinol concentration of boys, but not girls, in the VA group increased (0.33 vs 0.07 micromol/l in controls; P<0.01). The risk factors for low serum retinol concentration were lower baseline serum retinol concentration (OR 0.02-0.03) with, for girls, nightblindness at baseline (OR 5.88), and for boys, not receiving vitamin A (OR control: 1.00; VA: 0.37; Fe: 0.77; VAFe: 0.34) and maternal illiteracy (OR mother never attended school 1.00, mother received any formal education 0.17-0.33). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with vitamin A increased serum retinol concentration of boys. Iron supplementation did not change Hb. This appeared to be due to poor compliance, and partly related to side effects. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15164114/Effectiveness_of_weekly_vitamin_A__10000_IU__and_iron__60_mg__supplementation_for_adolescent_boys_and_girls_through_schools_in_rural_and_urban_East_Java_Indonesia_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601914 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -