Cardiovascular effects of milk enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins E and B6 in volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia.Nutrition. 2004 Jun; 20(6):521-7.N
Results from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have indicated that consumption of omega-3 fatty acids, oleic acid, and folic acid have beneficial effects on health, including decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the combined effects of these nutrients through the consumption of milk enriched with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, vitamins E and B6, and folic acid on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in volunteers with mild hyperlipidemia.
Thirty subjects ages 45 to 65 y (51.3 +/- 5.3 y) were given 500 mL/d of semi-skimmed milk for 4 wk and then 500 mL/d of the enriched milk for 8 wk. Plasma and low-density lipoproteins were obtained at the beginning of the study and at 4, 8, and 12 wk.
Consumption of enriched milk for 8 wk increased plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol (24%), total cholesterol (9%), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13%). Plasma and low-density lipoprotein oxidation and vitamin E concentration remained unchanged throughout the study. Significant decreases in plasma concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (9%) and homocysteine (17%) were found, accompanied by a 98% increase in plasma concentration of folic acid.
Dairy supplementation strategies with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid, and vitamins may be useful for decreasing risk factors for cardiovascular disease.