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Combined ingestion of protein and carbohydrate improves protein balance during ultra-endurance exercise.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Oct; 287(4):E712-20.AJ

Abstract

The aims of this study were to compare different tracer methods to assess whole body protein turnover during 6 h of prolonged endurance exercise when carbohydrate was ingested throughout the exercise period and to investigate whether addition of protein can improve protein balance. Eight endurance-trained athletes were studied on two different occasions at rest (4 h), during 6 h of exercise at 50% of maximal O2 uptake (in sequential order: 2.5 h of cycling, 1 h of running, and 2.5 h of cycling), and during subsequent recovery (4 h). Subjects ingested carbohydrate (CHO trial; 0.7 g CHO.kg(-1.)h(-1)) or carbohydrate/protein beverages (CHO + PRO trial; 0.7 g CHO.kg(-1).h(-1) and 0.25 g PRO.kg(-1).h(-1)) at 30-min intervals during the entire study. Whole body protein metabolism was determined by infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine, L-[2H5]phenylalanine, and [15N2]urea tracers with sampling of blood and expired breath. Leucine oxidation increased from rest to exercise [27 +/- 2.5 vs. 74 +/- 8.8 (CHO) and 85 +/- 9.5 vs. 200 +/- 16.3 mg protein.kg(-1).h(-1) (CHO + PRO), P < 0.05], whereas phenylalanine oxidation and urea production did not increase with exercise. Whole body protein balance during exercise with carbohydrate ingestion was negative (-74 +/- 8.8, -17 +/- 1.1, and -72 +/- 5.7 mg protein.kg(-1).h(-1)) when L-[1-13C]leucine, L-[2H5]phenylalanine, and [15N2]urea, respectively, were used as tracers. Addition of protein to the carbohydrate drinks resulted in a positive or less-negative protein balance (-32 +/- 16.3, 165 +/- 4.6, and 151 +/- 13.4 mg protein.kg(-1).h(-1)) when L-[1-13C]leucine, L-[2H5]phenylalanine, and [15N2]urea, respectively, were used as tracers. We conclude that, even during 6 h of exhaustive exercise in trained athletes using carbohydrate supplements, net protein oxidation does not increase compared with the resting state and/or postexercise recovery. Combined ingestion of protein and carbohydrate improves net protein balance at rest as well as during exercise and postexercise recovery.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, PO Box 616, 6200 MD, The Netherlands. R.Koopman@HB.unimaas.nlNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15165999

Citation

Koopman, René, et al. "Combined Ingestion of Protein and Carbohydrate Improves Protein Balance During Ultra-endurance Exercise." American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 287, no. 4, 2004, pp. E712-20.
Koopman R, Pannemans DL, Jeukendrup AE, et al. Combined ingestion of protein and carbohydrate improves protein balance during ultra-endurance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287(4):E712-20.
Koopman, R., Pannemans, D. L., Jeukendrup, A. E., Gijsen, A. P., Senden, J. M., Halliday, D., Saris, W. H., van Loon, L. J., & Wagenmakers, A. J. (2004). Combined ingestion of protein and carbohydrate improves protein balance during ultra-endurance exercise. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 287(4), E712-20.
Koopman R, et al. Combined Ingestion of Protein and Carbohydrate Improves Protein Balance During Ultra-endurance Exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287(4):E712-20. PubMed PMID: 15165999.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Combined ingestion of protein and carbohydrate improves protein balance during ultra-endurance exercise. AU - Koopman,René, AU - Pannemans,Daphne L E, AU - Jeukendrup,Asker E, AU - Gijsen,Annemie P, AU - Senden,Joan M G, AU - Halliday,David, AU - Saris,Wim H M, AU - van Loon,Luc J C, AU - Wagenmakers,Anton J M, Y1 - 2004/05/27/ PY - 2004/5/29/pubmed PY - 2004/10/27/medline PY - 2004/5/29/entrez SP - E712 EP - 20 JF - American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism JO - Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab VL - 287 IS - 4 N2 - The aims of this study were to compare different tracer methods to assess whole body protein turnover during 6 h of prolonged endurance exercise when carbohydrate was ingested throughout the exercise period and to investigate whether addition of protein can improve protein balance. Eight endurance-trained athletes were studied on two different occasions at rest (4 h), during 6 h of exercise at 50% of maximal O2 uptake (in sequential order: 2.5 h of cycling, 1 h of running, and 2.5 h of cycling), and during subsequent recovery (4 h). Subjects ingested carbohydrate (CHO trial; 0.7 g CHO.kg(-1.)h(-1)) or carbohydrate/protein beverages (CHO + PRO trial; 0.7 g CHO.kg(-1).h(-1) and 0.25 g PRO.kg(-1).h(-1)) at 30-min intervals during the entire study. Whole body protein metabolism was determined by infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine, L-[2H5]phenylalanine, and [15N2]urea tracers with sampling of blood and expired breath. Leucine oxidation increased from rest to exercise [27 +/- 2.5 vs. 74 +/- 8.8 (CHO) and 85 +/- 9.5 vs. 200 +/- 16.3 mg protein.kg(-1).h(-1) (CHO + PRO), P < 0.05], whereas phenylalanine oxidation and urea production did not increase with exercise. Whole body protein balance during exercise with carbohydrate ingestion was negative (-74 +/- 8.8, -17 +/- 1.1, and -72 +/- 5.7 mg protein.kg(-1).h(-1)) when L-[1-13C]leucine, L-[2H5]phenylalanine, and [15N2]urea, respectively, were used as tracers. Addition of protein to the carbohydrate drinks resulted in a positive or less-negative protein balance (-32 +/- 16.3, 165 +/- 4.6, and 151 +/- 13.4 mg protein.kg(-1).h(-1)) when L-[1-13C]leucine, L-[2H5]phenylalanine, and [15N2]urea, respectively, were used as tracers. We conclude that, even during 6 h of exhaustive exercise in trained athletes using carbohydrate supplements, net protein oxidation does not increase compared with the resting state and/or postexercise recovery. Combined ingestion of protein and carbohydrate improves net protein balance at rest as well as during exercise and postexercise recovery. SN - 0193-1849 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15165999/Combined_ingestion_of_protein_and_carbohydrate_improves_protein_balance_during_ultra_endurance_exercise_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -