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Exercise, stress, and inflammation in the growing child: from the bench to the playground.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

It is becoming increasingly clear that physical activity in children plays a critical role in growth and development, therapy for certain chronic diseases and disabilities, and in the pediatric origins of a variety of bone, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases. New mechanistic insights have created the opportunity for a phase shift in understanding of the links between exercise and health in the context of the growing child.

RECENT FINDINGS

Exercise even in healthy children profoundly alters stress, immune, and inflammatory mediators including peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (like interleukin-6). Moreover, exercise even in healthy adults stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mediators that attenuate them. Oxidative stress, in turn, alters growth and stress mediators. Both ROS and stress/inflammatory factors interact with powerful growth mediators like growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor-I. These findings suggest specific ways in which the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory, catabolic, and anabolic factors associated with exercise can influence health and growth in children.

SUMMARY

To address the current epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity in children and to optimize the therapeutic effects of exercise in children with disease and disability will require real changes in environments (eg, schools and playgrounds); innovative approaches to rehabilitation of children with chronic disease and disability; and enlightened training of child health professionals. Identifying novel exercise mechanisms involving stress, inflammation, and growth factors will help guide these efforts.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Pediatrics, Center for the Study of Health Effects of Exercise in Children, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Orange, 92868, USA. dcooper@uci.edu

    ,

    Source

    Current opinion in pediatrics 16:3 2004 Jun pg 286-92

    MeSH

    Age Factors
    Child
    Chronic Disease
    Exercise
    Growth
    Growth Hormone
    Humans
    Inflammation
    Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
    Interleukin-6
    Oxidative Stress
    Reactive Oxygen Species
    Stress, Physiological
    Time Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15167015

    Citation

    Cooper, Dan Michael, et al. "Exercise, Stress, and Inflammation in the Growing Child: From the Bench to the Playground." Current Opinion in Pediatrics, vol. 16, no. 3, 2004, pp. 286-92.
    Cooper DM, Nemet D, Galassetti P. Exercise, stress, and inflammation in the growing child: from the bench to the playground. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004;16(3):286-92.
    Cooper, D. M., Nemet, D., & Galassetti, P. (2004). Exercise, stress, and inflammation in the growing child: from the bench to the playground. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 16(3), pp. 286-92.
    Cooper DM, Nemet D, Galassetti P. Exercise, Stress, and Inflammation in the Growing Child: From the Bench to the Playground. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004;16(3):286-92. PubMed PMID: 15167015.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Exercise, stress, and inflammation in the growing child: from the bench to the playground. AU - Cooper,Dan Michael, AU - Nemet,Dan, AU - Galassetti,Pietro, PY - 2004/5/29/pubmed PY - 2004/9/3/medline PY - 2004/5/29/entrez SP - 286 EP - 92 JF - Current opinion in pediatrics JO - Curr. Opin. Pediatr. VL - 16 IS - 3 N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is becoming increasingly clear that physical activity in children plays a critical role in growth and development, therapy for certain chronic diseases and disabilities, and in the pediatric origins of a variety of bone, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases. New mechanistic insights have created the opportunity for a phase shift in understanding of the links between exercise and health in the context of the growing child. RECENT FINDINGS: Exercise even in healthy children profoundly alters stress, immune, and inflammatory mediators including peripheral blood mononuclear cells and circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (like interleukin-6). Moreover, exercise even in healthy adults stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mediators that attenuate them. Oxidative stress, in turn, alters growth and stress mediators. Both ROS and stress/inflammatory factors interact with powerful growth mediators like growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor-I. These findings suggest specific ways in which the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory, catabolic, and anabolic factors associated with exercise can influence health and growth in children. SUMMARY: To address the current epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity in children and to optimize the therapeutic effects of exercise in children with disease and disability will require real changes in environments (eg, schools and playgrounds); innovative approaches to rehabilitation of children with chronic disease and disability; and enlightened training of child health professionals. Identifying novel exercise mechanisms involving stress, inflammation, and growth factors will help guide these efforts. SN - 1040-8703 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15167015/full_citation L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=15167015 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -