Smoking, alcohol drinking and cancer risk for various sites of the larynx and hypopharynx. A case-control study in France.Eur J Cancer Prev 2004; 13(3):165-72EJ
The aim of this work was to study the effects of alcohol and tobacco consumption on laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer and to compare these across subsites (glottis, supraglottis, epilarynx, hypopharynx). Data from a hospital-based case-control study including 504 male cases (105 glottic cancers, 80 supraglottic cancers, 97 epilaryngeal cancers and 201 hypopharyngeal cancers) and 242 male controls with non-respiratory cancers were used for this analysis. Information about sociodemographic characteristics, detailed alcohol and tobacco consumption was collected through face-to-face interviews. Statistical analysis used logistic regression, and subsites were compared with polytomous logistic regressions. The risk of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer increased with tobacco (duration and amount) and alcohol consumption; the effect of both agents was multiplicative. From the lowest to the highest consumption level, odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 5.9 among regular drinkers and from 3 to 44 among current smokers. Risks among ex-smokers were approximately one-third of those for current smokers. Slightly elevated odds ratios were associated with consumption of black tobacco (OR=1.2) and hand-rolled cigarettes (OR=1.2). The risk of cancer was not clearly associated with the type of alcoholic beverage. Subsites did not differ significantly according to tobacco smoking, but differed according to alcohol consumption, with a significantly higher increased risk for hypopharyngeal than for glottic and supraglottic cancers.