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Determination of cocaine, its metabolites, pyrolysis products, and ethanol adducts in postmortem fluids and tissues using Zymark automated solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Jul 05; 806(2):141-50.JC

Abstract

Demonstrating the presence or absence of cocaine (COC) and COC-related molecules in postmortem fluids and/or tissues can have serious legal consequences and may help determine the cause of impairment and/or death. We have developed a simple method for the simultaneous determination of COC and the COC metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE), norbenzoylecgonine (NBE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), ecgonine (E), and norcocaine (NCOC), as well as anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME) (a unique byproduct of COC smoking), cocaethylene (a molecule formed by the concurrent use of COC and ethanol) and their related metabolites, anhydroecgonine (AE), norcocaethylene (NCE), and ecgonine ethyl ester (EEE). This method incorporates a Zymark RapidTrace automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) system, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoro-1-propanol (PFP)/pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatives. The lower limits of detection ranged from 0.78 to 12.5 ng/mL and the linear dynamic range for most analytes was 0.78-3200 ng/mL. The extraction efficiencies were from 26 to 84% with the exception of anhydroecgonine and ecgonine, which were from 1 to 4%. We applied this method to five aviation fatalities. This method has proven to be simple, robust and accurate for the simultaneous determination of COC and 11 COC metabolites in postmortem fluids and tissues.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Toxicology and Accident Research Laboratory, Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration, AAM-610, PO Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, USA. russell.j.lewis@faa.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15171923

Citation

Lewis, Russell J., et al. "Determination of Cocaine, Its Metabolites, Pyrolysis Products, and Ethanol Adducts in Postmortem Fluids and Tissues Using Zymark Automated Solid-phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry." Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 806, no. 2, 2004, pp. 141-50.
Lewis RJ, Johnson RD, Angier MK, et al. Determination of cocaine, its metabolites, pyrolysis products, and ethanol adducts in postmortem fluids and tissues using Zymark automated solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004;806(2):141-50.
Lewis, R. J., Johnson, R. D., Angier, M. K., & Ritter, R. M. (2004). Determination of cocaine, its metabolites, pyrolysis products, and ethanol adducts in postmortem fluids and tissues using Zymark automated solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 806(2), 141-50.
Lewis RJ, et al. Determination of Cocaine, Its Metabolites, Pyrolysis Products, and Ethanol Adducts in Postmortem Fluids and Tissues Using Zymark Automated Solid-phase Extraction and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Jul 5;806(2):141-50. PubMed PMID: 15171923.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Determination of cocaine, its metabolites, pyrolysis products, and ethanol adducts in postmortem fluids and tissues using Zymark automated solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. AU - Lewis,Russell J, AU - Johnson,R D, AU - Angier,M K, AU - Ritter,R M, PY - 2003/11/03/received PY - 2004/03/22/revised PY - 2004/03/23/accepted PY - 2004/6/3/pubmed PY - 2005/2/25/medline PY - 2004/6/3/entrez SP - 141 EP - 50 JF - Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences JO - J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci VL - 806 IS - 2 N2 - Demonstrating the presence or absence of cocaine (COC) and COC-related molecules in postmortem fluids and/or tissues can have serious legal consequences and may help determine the cause of impairment and/or death. We have developed a simple method for the simultaneous determination of COC and the COC metabolites benzoylecgonine (BE), norbenzoylecgonine (NBE), ecgonine methyl ester (EME), ecgonine (E), and norcocaine (NCOC), as well as anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME) (a unique byproduct of COC smoking), cocaethylene (a molecule formed by the concurrent use of COC and ethanol) and their related metabolites, anhydroecgonine (AE), norcocaethylene (NCE), and ecgonine ethyl ester (EEE). This method incorporates a Zymark RapidTrace automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) system, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoro-1-propanol (PFP)/pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatives. The lower limits of detection ranged from 0.78 to 12.5 ng/mL and the linear dynamic range for most analytes was 0.78-3200 ng/mL. The extraction efficiencies were from 26 to 84% with the exception of anhydroecgonine and ecgonine, which were from 1 to 4%. We applied this method to five aviation fatalities. This method has proven to be simple, robust and accurate for the simultaneous determination of COC and 11 COC metabolites in postmortem fluids and tissues. SN - 1570-0232 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15171923/Determination_of_cocaine_its_metabolites_pyrolysis_products_and_ethanol_adducts_in_postmortem_fluids_and_tissues_using_Zymark_automated_solid_phase_extraction_and_gas_chromatography_mass_spectrometry_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1570023204002867 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -