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Betel quid without tobacco as a risk factor for oral precancers.
Oral Oncol 2004; 40(7):697-704OO

Abstract

The IARC monographs recently classified chewing betel quid without tobacco as a human carcinogen. Several studies in Taiwan have reported that betel quid without tobacco may increase the risk of oral precancers such as oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis. However in India, since most betel quid chewers prefer to add tobacco to the quid, the independent effect of betel quid on the risk of oral precancers is difficult to assess and has not yet been fully explored. We conducted a large case-control study in Kerala, India, including 927 oral leukoplakia cases, 170 oral submucous fibrosis cases, 100 erythroplakia cases, 115 multiple oral precancer cases and 47,773 controls. The focus of this reanalysis is on the minority of individuals who chewed betel quid without tobacco. Among nonsmokers and nondrinkers, chewing betel quid without tobacco conferred ORs of 22.2 (95%CI = 11.3, 43.7) for oral leukoplakia, 56.2 (95%CI = 21.8, 144.8) for oral submucous fibrosis, 29.0 (95%CI = 5.63, 149.5) for erythroplakia and 28.3 (95%CI = 6.88, 116.7) for multiple oral precancers, after adjustment for age, sex, education and BMI. Dose-response relationships were observed for both the frequency and duration of betel quid chewing without tobacco on the risk of oral precancers. In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that chewing betel quid without tobacco elevates the risks of various oral precancers.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum 695011, India.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15172639

Citation

Jacob, Binu J., et al. "Betel Quid Without Tobacco as a Risk Factor for Oral Precancers." Oral Oncology, vol. 40, no. 7, 2004, pp. 697-704.
Jacob BJ, Straif K, Thomas G, et al. Betel quid without tobacco as a risk factor for oral precancers. Oral Oncol. 2004;40(7):697-704.
Jacob, B. J., Straif, K., Thomas, G., Ramadas, K., Mathew, B., Zhang, Z. F., ... Hashibe, M. (2004). Betel quid without tobacco as a risk factor for oral precancers. Oral Oncology, 40(7), pp. 697-704.
Jacob BJ, et al. Betel Quid Without Tobacco as a Risk Factor for Oral Precancers. Oral Oncol. 2004;40(7):697-704. PubMed PMID: 15172639.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Betel quid without tobacco as a risk factor for oral precancers. AU - Jacob,Binu J, AU - Straif,Kurt, AU - Thomas,Gigi, AU - Ramadas,Kunnambathu, AU - Mathew,Babu, AU - Zhang,Zuo-Feng, AU - Sankaranarayanan,Rengaswamy, AU - Hashibe,Mia, PY - 2003/11/10/received PY - 2004/01/07/accepted PY - 2004/6/3/pubmed PY - 2004/11/4/medline PY - 2004/6/3/entrez SP - 697 EP - 704 JF - Oral oncology JO - Oral Oncol. VL - 40 IS - 7 N2 - The IARC monographs recently classified chewing betel quid without tobacco as a human carcinogen. Several studies in Taiwan have reported that betel quid without tobacco may increase the risk of oral precancers such as oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis. However in India, since most betel quid chewers prefer to add tobacco to the quid, the independent effect of betel quid on the risk of oral precancers is difficult to assess and has not yet been fully explored. We conducted a large case-control study in Kerala, India, including 927 oral leukoplakia cases, 170 oral submucous fibrosis cases, 100 erythroplakia cases, 115 multiple oral precancer cases and 47,773 controls. The focus of this reanalysis is on the minority of individuals who chewed betel quid without tobacco. Among nonsmokers and nondrinkers, chewing betel quid without tobacco conferred ORs of 22.2 (95%CI = 11.3, 43.7) for oral leukoplakia, 56.2 (95%CI = 21.8, 144.8) for oral submucous fibrosis, 29.0 (95%CI = 5.63, 149.5) for erythroplakia and 28.3 (95%CI = 6.88, 116.7) for multiple oral precancers, after adjustment for age, sex, education and BMI. Dose-response relationships were observed for both the frequency and duration of betel quid chewing without tobacco on the risk of oral precancers. In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that chewing betel quid without tobacco elevates the risks of various oral precancers. SN - 1368-8375 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15172639/Betel_quid_without_tobacco_as_a_risk_factor_for_oral_precancers_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1368837504000223 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -